Hamutal, in the Bible, mother of Jehoahaz and Zedekiah.
Tzidkiyahu (צִדְקִיָּהוּ, Şidhqiyyāhû; Greek: ζεδεκιας, Zedekias; traditional English: Zedekiah) was the last king of Judah. He was the third son of Josiah, and his mother was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, thus he was the brother of Jehoahaz ().

In Hebrew, his name means, Şidhqî Yāhû (צִדְקִי יָהוּ), "YHWH [is] my righteousness".

William F. Albright dates the reign of Zedekiah to 597-587 BCE, while E. R. Thiele to 597-586 BCE.

Life and Reign

His original name was Mattanyahu (מַתַּנְיָהוּ, Mattanyāhû, "Gift of God"; traditional English: Mattaniah), but when Nebuchadnezzar II placed him on the throne as the successor to Jehoiachin, he changed his name to Zedekiah. The prophet Jeremiah was his counsellor, yet "he did evil in the sight of the Lord" (2 Kings 24:19, 20; Jeremiah 52:2, 3).

He ascended the throne at the age of twenty-one and became a strong leader. The kingdom was at that time tributary to Nebuchadnezzar II. Despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, as well as the example of Jehoiachin, he revolted against Babylon, and entered into an alliance with Pharaoh Hophra, king of Egypt. This brought up Nebuchadnezzar, "with all his host" (2 Kings 25:1), against Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar began a siege of Jerusalem 589 BCE. During this siege, which lasted about eighteen months, "every worst woe befell the devoted city, which drank the cup of God's fury to the dregs" (2 Kings 25:3; Lamentations 4:4, 5, 9).

In the eleventh year of Zedekiah's reign, Nebuchadnezzar succeeded in conquering Jerusalem. The city was plundered and reduced to ruins. Zedekiah and his followers attempted to escape, making their way out of the city, but were captured on the plains of Jericho, and were taken to Riblah.

There, after seeing his own sons put to death, his own eyes were put out, and, being loaded with chains, he was carried captive (587 BCE) to Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-7; 2 Chronicles 36:12; Jeremiah 32:4,5; 34:2, 3; 39:1-7; 52:4-11; Ezekiel 12:12), where he remained a prisoner, how long is unknown, to the day of his death.

After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuzaraddan was sent to carry out its complete destruction. The city was razed to the ground. Only a small number of vinedressers and husbandmen were permitted to remain in the land (Jer. 52:16). Gedaliah, with a Chaldean guard stationed at Mizpah, was left to rule over Judah (2 Kings 25:22, 24; Jer. 40:1, 2, 5, 6).

Zedekiah in the Book of Mormon

According to the Book of Mormon, Zedekiah's son Mulek escaped death and travelled across one of the oceans (Atlantic or Pacific) to the Americas, where he founded a nation that later merged with the Nephites.


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