Channel in the U.S. through which the James, Elizabeth, and Nansemond rivers flow into Chesapeake Bay. About 4 mi (6 km) wide and 40 ft (12 m) deep, it has been an important military base since colonial days. In 1862 it was the scene of the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack. The port cities of Newport News, Norfolk, and Portsmouth comprise the Port of Hampton Roads, one of the busiest U.S. seaports.
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Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water and the region of land areas which surround it in southeastern Virginia in the USA. Hampton Roads is notable for its year-round ice-free harbor, for United States Navy, Air Force, NASA, Marine, and Army facilities, shipyards, coal piers, and hundreds of miles of waterfront property and beaches, all of which contribute to the diversity and stability of the region's economy.
The water area known as Hampton Roads (informally known locally as "the harbor") is one of the world's biggest natural harbors, and incorporates the mouths of the Elizabeth River and James River with several smaller rivers and itself empties into the Chesapeake Bay near its mouth leading to the Atlantic Ocean.
The land area includes dozens of cities, counties and towns on the Virginia Peninsula and in South Hampton Roads. Some of the more outlying areas from the harbor may or may not be included as part of "Hampton Roads", depending upon the organization or purpose. For a commonly used example, as defined for federal economic purposes, the Hampton Roads metropolitan statistical area (MSA) additionally includes one county in northeastern North Carolina and two counties in Virginia’s Middle Peninsula. Officially, the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA) has a population of about 1.7 million, the 33rd-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
The area is steeped in 400 years of American history, and hundreds of historical sites and attractions in the area draw visitors from around the world each year. The harbor was the key to the Hampton Roads area's growth, both on land and in water-related activities and events. Ironically, the harbor and its tributary waterways were (and still are) both important transportation conduits and obstacles to other land-based commerce and travel. Creating and maintaining adequate infrastructure has long been a major challenge. The Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT) and the Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel (MMBT) are major harbor crossings of the Hampton Roads Beltway which links each of the largest Seven Cities of Hampton Roads. In 2007, the new Hampton Roads Transportation Authority (HRTA) was formed under a controversial state law to levy various additional taxes to generate funding for major regional transportation projects, including a long-sought and costly third crossing of the harbor of Hampton Roads, which claims to be "America's First Region."
During 18 days of exploring the area, they surely saw the enormous harbor of Hampton Roads, and some of the party must have appreciated its possibilities. However, after exploring the James River west at least as far as present-day Hopewell, they agreed upon Jamestown Island, where they established the first English speaking settlement to survive in the New World on 14 May 1607.
Despite the defensive advantages of that location against Spanish attacks, the low and marshy site at Jamestown proved a very poor choice in many other ways. More than five years of fragile existence and high mortality rates followed including the Starving Time of 1609-10 when over 80% of the 500 colonists perished before the future of the Virginia Colony began to appear more promising. The change came about with the just-in-time arrival of a new Governor, Lord Delaware, and a new colonist with a successful business idea named John Rolfe.
The town at the center of Elizabeth Cittie became known as simply "Hampton", and a nearby waterway was designated Hampton Creek (also known as Hampton River). The town (and later city) of Hampton was the county seat of Elizabeth City County for over 300 years, until they were politically consolidated into the current large independent city known as Hampton, Virginia in 1952. The City of Hampton thus became one of the large Seven Cities of Hampton Roads, of which four others also grew to the larger sizes by consolidating with neighboring jurisdictions such as counties and towns in the mid-twentieth century.
A land area to the north across the bay in what is now called "the Eastern Shore" became known as Northampton. Another area south of the James River became Southampton. As with Hampton, both of these names also remain in use in modern times.
Although the designation initially applied to the water area, the region has also come to be known as "Hampton Roads", a label more specific than the term "Tidewater Virginia", which could by implication, include other areas of tidal lands in eastern Virginia. The U.S. Postal Service changed its postmark from "Tidewater Virginia" to "Hampton Roads, Virginia" beginning in 1983.
The harbor was also a key point for military control of the region. Even the earliest settlers created fortifications at Old Point Comfort by 1610 against potential attacks by ships of Spanish or other unfriendly European forces.
Fort Monroe was the launching place for Union General George McClellan's massive 1862 Peninsula Campaign, a land campaign of many months which began at Fort Monroe and advanced up the Virginia Peninsula, with a Siege at Yorktown and another battle at Williamsburg before the Union Army almost literally reached the gates of Richmond, ending at the Chickahominy River within earshot of the city's church bells, according to the journals of Union soldiers. However, the Confederates mounted a credible defense of their capital city, and McClellan's campaign failed to capture Richmond, ending in the Seven Days Battles, during which the Union Army withdrew, effectively extending the War for almost three more years.
During the American Civil War (1861~1865), after the efforts of Francis P. Blair (Sr.), the Confederate president Jefferson Davis sent three Peace Commissioners in an effort to negotiate for peace. This unsuccessful attempt at peace lasted for four hours, and at the end of the Conference, the commissioners returned to Richmond.
Beginning in 1861, some of the former slaves found refuge near Fort Monroe, which remained in Union hands throughout the War. There, the commander, Union Army General Benjamin F. Butler, a lawyer by training, declared them to be "Contraband of war". On that legal basis, Union forces refused to return them to Confederate owners as would have been the practice even in many "free states" before Virginia seceded and declared itself a foreign power. Soon, word spread, and many slaves were understandably anxious to become "contraband."
Although many of the "contraband" men at Hampton and elsewhere during the War volunteered and became part of the United States Colored Troops (USCT), others and the women and children grew in increasing numbers near Fort Monroe in Elizabeth City County. From the wood and materials salvaged from the remains of the Town of Hampton, which had been burned earlier by retreating Confederates, they built the Grand Contraband Camp, near, but outside the protective walls of the Army base. It was the first self-contained African American community in the United States.
Close by, was (and still is) the Emancipation Oak, on the grounds of the school for them which grew to become Hampton University. Beginning as a normal school founded to train teachers, Hampton University was established by church groups and former Union Army officers. Early educators of the era included Mary Smith Peake and former Union Army General Samuel Chapman Armstrong, who was himself the son of missionaries, and had commanded a USCT force during the War. Among the earlier students was a young former slave named Booker T. Washington, who became a famed African-American educator and was the first head of present-day Tuskegee University. The Emancipation Oak is part of the official logo of the modern city of Hampton.
President Theodore Roosevelt arrived by water in the harbor of Hampton Roads, as did other notable persons such as Mark Twain and Henry Huttleston Rogers, who both arrived aboard the latter's steam yacht Kanawha. A major naval display was featured, and the U.S. Great White Fleet made an appearance. The leaders of the U.S. Navy apparently did not fail to note the ideal harbor conditions, as was later proved.
Beginning in 1917, as the United States became involved in World War I under President Woodrow Wilson, formerly rural Sewell's Point became the site of what grew to become the largest Naval Base in the world which was established by the United States Navy and is now known as the Naval Station Norfolk.
Although some left the area entirely, many of the displaced families chose to relocate nearby to Grove, an unincorporated town in southeastern James City County where many generations of some of those families now reside. From a population estimated at only 37 in 1895, Grove had grown to an estimated 1,100 families by the end of the 20th century. (To its north, Grove actually borders the Naval Weapons Station property and on its extreme east, a portion of the U.S. Army's land at Fort Eustis extends across Skiffe's Creek, although there is no direct access to either base).
A dream of one Episcopalian priest to save his 18th century church building was to expand to create the world's largest living museum. Replacing Jamestown and the end of the 17th century, Williamsburg had been capital of the Colony and the new State of Virginia from 1699-1780. After the capital moved to Richmond in 1780, Williamsburg became a quieter and sometimes described as "sleepy" small town. It saw some action during the Battle of Williamsburg of the 1862 Peninsula Campaign during the Civil War. However, it was not located along any major waterway and did not have railroad access until 1881. Perhaps due to the secure inland location originally known as Middle Plantation, for Williamsburg, growth and great expansion of commerce in the 19th century did not occur as rapidly as in many other Virginia cities. The main activities were the College of William and Mary and Eastern State Hospital, each historic institutions in their own right. In addition to the city's historic past, quite a few buildings of antiquity from the 18th century were still extant, although time was taking a toll by the early 20th century.
The Reverend Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin of Bruton Parish Church initially had wanted merely to save his historic church building. This he accomplished by 1907. He later served in Rochester, New York for many years. Upon returning to Williamsburg in 1923, he began to realize that many of the other colonial-era buildings also remained, but were in deteriorating condition, and their continued longevity was at risk.
Goodwin dreamed of a much larger restoration along the lines of what he had accomplished with his historic church. A cleric of modest means, he sought support and financing from a number of sources before successfully drawing the interests and major financial support of Standard Oil heir and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. and his wife Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. The result of their combined efforts was the creation of Colonial Williamsburg, which included a restoration of the Wren Building at the College of William and Mary and a change of much of the downtown Williamsburg area into a Historic Area of restored and replica buildings and surrounds to celebrate the patriots and the early history of America.
By the 1930s, Colonial Williamsburg had become the centerpiece of the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia. These were, of course, Jamestown, where the colony started, Williamsburg, and Yorktown, where independence from Great Britain was won. The three points were joined by the U.S. National Park Service's Colonial Parkway, a remarkable accomplishment built over a period of 27 years. The Historic Triangle area of the Hampton Roads region became one of the largest tourist attractions in the entire world.
In Dr. Goodwin's words: "Williamsburg is Jamestown continued, and Yorktown is Williamsburg vindicated."
Some additional localities on the northern, southwestern, and southern edges are included in various definitions. Three entities with varying definitions are described in individual sections below. For example, the federal government defines the Hampton Roads MSA as a metropolitan area for statistical purposes, and even looks beyond a state line for common economic function, including a portion of North Carolina in the MSA for Hampton Roads. Officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA, the Hampton Roads MSA includes Currituck County, NC; Gloucester County, VA; Isle of Wight County, VA; James City County, VA; Mathews County, VA; Surry County, VA; York County, VA; Chesapeake city, VA; Hampton city, VA; Newport News city, VA; Norfolk city, VA; Poquoson city, VA; Portsmouth city, VA; Suffolk city, VA; Virginia Beach city, VA; Williamsburg city, VA.
The Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC) as defined by Virginia includes most (but not all) of that area, and also does not generally include areas in another state in its activities.
The Hampton Roads Partnership is a regional marketing entity, promoting "America's First Region" and uses a slightly different definition than either of the preceding two.
The Hampton Roads Economic Development Alliance (HREDA) is a regional economic development organization that focuses on attracting new businesses to the region and has a slightly different definition than any of the preceding.
To be informative, this article includes information on all of the localities included in any of these three descriptions. By May 2007, the Hampton Roads region had 400 years of rich history. For the detailed histories of the each of various communities which make up today's Hampton Roads region, please refer to the articles on the History of Virginia, Virginia Peninsula and South Hampton Roads subregions, and links which are located in the following sections to the individual articles for each shire, county, town, or city.
The Hampton Roads MSA has a population of about 1.7 million and is the fifth largest metropolitan area in the southeastern USA after Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL MSA, Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA MSA, the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA, and Orlando-Kissimmee, FL MSA.
The Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC) currently includes 16 cities and counties, all in Virginia, and represents over 1.6 million people.
The 16 jurisdictions include: the Cities of Chesapeake, Franklin, Hampton, Newport News, Norfolk, Poquoson, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Virginia Beach, and Williamsburg, and the Counties of Gloucester, Isle of Wight, James City, Southampton, Surry, and York. It is noteworthy that there are incorporated towns located in three of the counties within the district (Isle of Wight, Southampton and Surry).
The new title is based on events in 1607 when English Captain Christopher Newport's three ships - the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery landed at Cape Henry along the Atlantic Coast at Cape Henry in what is today Virginia Beach. After 18 days of exploring the area, the ships and their crews arrived at Jamestown Island where they established the first English speaking settlement to survive in the New World on 14 May 1607.
Because the region's east-west boundaries (now the City of Virginia Beach and James City County) have not changed since 1607, the Partnership felt justified in labeling Hampton Roads "America's First Region". It unveiled the new brand before 800 people at the annual meeting of the Hampton Roads Chamber of Commerce on December 13, 2006. A video shown that afternoon included endorsements from mayors and county board of supervisors chairs representing Hampton, Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Williamsburg and James City County as well as the Governor of Virginia, Timothy Kaine.
As the current communities in the Hampton Roads region were formed and grew from the Colonial period to statehood and modern times, the political structure of many areas in Virginia changed. Between 1952 and 1976, a wave of consolidations of local governments led to almost the entire southeastern portion of Virginia consisting of a group of adjoining independent cities, eventually numbering eight. (joining the Seven major cities of Hampton Roads was the comparatively tiny City of Poquoson, which had formerly been an incorporated town in York County).
Many incorporated (formally constituted) localities became legally defunct, though mostly not abandoned by their citizens, with the notable exception of Jamestown. For search of genealogical, land, and other historical records, it may be necessary to find these old names.
The following is a partial listing of defunct political subdivisions in the Hampton Roads area with approximate formation and dissolution dates. Note: Former towns which grew to became cities of the same name are not listed separately, nor are unincorporated towns. More information about dates and dispositions may be found in most individual articles by following the links.
In order of date founded:
The region has extensive natural areas, including of Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay beaches, the Great Dismal Swamp, picturesque rivers, state parks, wildlife refuges, and botanical gardens. Inland from the bay, the region includes Lake Drummond, one of only two natural lakes found in Virginia, and miles of waterfront property along the various rivers and waterways.
The land portion of Hampton Roads is primarily divided into two subregions, the Peninsula, on the north side of the harbor, and South Hampton Roads, on the south side, where the majority of the area's population lives.
In addition, the Middle Peninsula counties of Gloucester and Mathews, while not part of the geographical Hampton Roads area, are included in the vast metropolitan region's population. Also, a small portion of northeastern North Carolina (Currituck County) is included in the region's statistics. Due to a peculiarity in the drawing of the Virginia-North Carolina border, Knott's Island in that county is connected to Virginia by land, but is only accessible to other parts of North Carolina across waterways via a ferry system.
Many early bridges were constructed and funded privately through the collection of tolls. Later, state-sponsorship was required to fund larger projects. The best example of many was in 1957, when the world's first continuous bridge-tunnel complex was successfully completed across the mouth of the Hampton Roads harbor, innovatively designed and funded with toll revenue bonds. Soon, another even larger one was built across the entire mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, exceeding many expectations.
In modern times, the region has faced increasing transportation challenges as it has become largely urbanized, with additional traffic needs. In the 21st century, the conflicts between traffic on vital waterways and land-based travel continue to present the area's leaders with extraordinary transportation challenges, both for additional capacity, and as the existing infrastructure, much of it originally built with toll revenues, has aged without an adequate source of funding to repair or build replacements. The now-closed Kings Highway Bridge in Suffolk and the Jordan Bridge operating with severe traffic weight restrictions in neighboring Chesapeake, each built in the 1920s, are considered locally prime examples of this situation.
Public opinion polls seem to indicate that many citizens feel the accomplishments with the historic bridge-tunnels across the harbor and nearby Chesapeake Bay and the many other improvements since, such as the completion of the Hampton Roads Beltway and a third bridge-tunnel (second across the harbor) in 1992 are indicative that the region's leaders will be capable of seeking and employing new transportation and funding solutions for the future, and that they will receive the necessary public support to do so.
In 2007, the new Hampton Roads Transportation Authority (HRTA) was formed under a controversial state law to levy various additional taxes to generate funding for major regional transportation projects, including a long-sought and costly third crossing of the harbor of Hampton Roads. As of March 2008, although its projects were considered to be needed, the agency's future was in some question while its controversial sources of funding were being reconsidered in light of a Virginia Supreme Court decision.
The Hampton Roads area has an extensive network of Interstate Highways, including the Interstate 64, the major east-west route to and from the area, and its spurs and bypasses of I-264, I-464, I-564, and I-664.
The Hampton Roads Beltway extends on a long loop through the region, crossing the harbor on two toll-free bridge-tunnel facilities. These crossings are the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel between Phoebus in Hampton and Willoughby Spit in Norfolk and the Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel between Newport News and Suffolk. The Beltway connects with another Interstate highway and three arterial U.S. Highways at Bower's Hill near the northeastern edge of the Great Dismal Swamp.
There are also two other tunnels in the area, the Midtown Tunnel, and the Downtown Tunnel joining Portsmouth and Norfolk, as well as the -long Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, a toll facility which links the region with Virginia's Eastern Shore which carries US 13. The original Downtown Tunnel in conjunction with the Berkley Bridge were considered a single bridge and tunnel complex when completed in 1952, perhaps stimulating the innovative bridge-tunnel design using man-made islands when the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel was planned, first opening in 1957.
Although earlier ferry services across the Bay, the harbor, and various rivers were eventually supplanted in the 20th century by bridges, tunnels, and bridge-tunnels, a passenger ferry continues to operate between Norfolk and Portsmouth, and one major automobile ferry service also remains. The Jamestown Ferry (also known as the Jamestown-Scotland Ferry) is an automobile ferry system on the James River connecting Jamestown in James City County with Scotland in Surry County. It carries State Route 31. Operated by VDOT, it is the only 24-hour state-run ferry operation in Virginia and has over 90 employees. It operates four ferryboats, the Pocahontas, the Williamsburg, the Surry, and the Virginia. The facility is toll-free.
In Virginia, the region is notable in that it has 2 types of public transport services via ferrys. A passenger ferry is operated on the Elizabeth River between downtown areas of Norfolk and Portsmouth by HRT. A commuter bus route across the James River between Williamsburg and rural Surry County is provided via the vehicle-carrying Jamestown Ferry system.
As the largest transit operator, Hampton Roads Transit is southeastern Virginia's most reliable mobility source, serving over 17 million annual passengers in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. HRT currently serves 1.2 million people within its service area.
In the upper (western) Peninsula area known as the Historic Triangle, a transit bus system and paratransit services are provided by Williamsburg Area Transport (WAT), based in the Williamsburg area, which serves Williamsburg, James City County, and a portion of York County. The system offers a connection with the much larger Hampton Roads Transit system at Lee Hall, Virginia and at the Williamsburg Transportation Center.
The Williamsburg Transportation Center is located in a restored building which was formerly a Chesapeake and Ohio Railway station. Along the railroad line built to connect the Ohio River Valley with the new city of Newport News and the port of Hampton Roads by Collis P. Huntington in 1881, the station was originally built in 1935 with funding from John D. Rockefeller Jr. as part of the restoration of the colonial capital which became known worldwide as Colonial Williamsburg. During the heyday of the railroads, dozens of dignitaries arrived there, including Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower and Sir Winston Churchill. In modern times, the center offers good non-automobile driving alternatives for visitors and citizens, both getting there, and moving around locally, with rail service, intercity and local transit bus services.
There has also been a light rail study in the Hampton - Newport News areas.
The resort city of Virginia Beach had been considering a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system similar to that in use in Las Vegas, but the lack of any subsidiary transit systems (i.e. light rail or a substantial network of local bus routes) with which to connect contributed to the project's abandonment while in the planning stage. City officials stated that other projects may be considered in the future.
There is a small very experimental Magnetic levitation project under development on campus at Old Dominion University in Norfolk. Using a new experimental technology, it was not yet operational as of 2008.
The Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation has studies underway for extending high speed passenger rail to the Virginia Peninsula and South Hampton Roads areas with a rail connection at Richmond to both the Northeast Corridor and the Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor.
Hampton Roads has become known as the "world's greatest natural harbor". The port is located only from open ocean on one of the world's deepest, natural ice-free harbors. Since 1989, Hampton Roads has been the mid-Atlantic leader in U.S. waterborne foreign commerce and is ranked second nationally behind the Port of South Louisiana based on export tonnage. When import and export tonnage are combined, the Port of Hampton Roads ranks as the third largest port in the country (following the ports of New Orleans/South Louisiana and Houston. In 1996, Hampton Roads was ranked ninth among major U.S. ports in vessel port calls with approximately 2,700. In addition, this port is the U.S. leader in coal exports. The coal loading facilities in the Port of Hampton Roads are able to load in excess of 65 million tons annually, giving the port the largest, most efficient and modern coal loading facilities in the world.
It is little surprise therefore that the Hampton Roads region's economic base is largely port-related, including shipbuilding, ship repair, naval installations, cargo transfer and storage, and manufacturing related to the processing of imports and exports. Associated with the ports' military role are almost 50,000 federal civilian employees.
Other area military facilities (alphabetically) include:
NASA's Langley Research Center, located on the Peninsula adjacent to Langley Air Force Base in Hampton, is home to scientific and aerospace technology research. The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (commonly known as Jefferson Labs) is located nearby in Newport News.
As conceived by student Andrew Wall and embellished by the selection committee, his flag is highly symbolic:
For an even better experience, approach the area from the south by water from Surry County with a ride aboard one of the Jamestown Ferrys, which include the Pocahontas and Williamsburg. As passengers cross, they can walk about the boat or go up to an enclosed viewing level with restrooms. Weather and daylight permitting, passengers usually see Jamestown Island much as the first colonists may have approached it. In fact, the replicas of Christopher Newport's the three tiny ships, Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery are docked near the northern ferry landing at Glass House Point. Both the Jamestown Ferry and Colonial Parkway are toll-free.
Today, at Jamestown, you can visit recreations of an American Indian village and colonial fort, and archaeological sites where current work is underway by archeologists from the Jamestown Rediscovery project, with recently recovered archaeological artifacts in a new display building. Replicas of the three ships, Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery are docked nearby.
The two major attractions, which are complementary to each other, are the state-sponsored Jamestown Settlement near the entrance to Jamestown Island, and the National Parks Service's Historic Jamestowne, on Jamestown Island itself.
Hampton Roads experienced tremendous growth during and after World War II. In the 1950s, a trend in retail was the shopping center, a group of stores along a common sidewalk adjacent to off-street parking, usually in a suburban location.
In 1959, one of the largest on the east coast of the USA was opened at the northeast corner of Military Highway and Virginia Beach Boulevard on property which had formally been used as an airfield. The new JANAF Shopping Center, located in Norfolk, featured acres of free parking and dozens of stores. Backed by retired military personnel, the name JANAF was an acronym for Joint Army Navy Air Force.
During the 1950s and early-1960s, other shopping centers in Hampton Roads were developed, such as Wards Corner Shopping Center, Downtown Plaza Shopping Center and Southern Shopping Center in Norfolk; Mid-City Shopping Center in Portsmouth; Hilltop Shopping Center (now known as The Shops at Hilltop) in Virginia Beach; Riverdale Shopping Center in Hampton and the Warwick-Denbigh Shopping Center in Newport News.
MacArthur Center opened in March 1999, which made downtown Norfolk a prime shoppers destination, with the region's first Nordstrom department store anchor. MacArthur Center is compared to other downtown malls, such as Baltimore's Harborplace, Indianapolis' Circle Centre Mall, Atlanta's Lenox Square Mall and most comparably to The Fashion Centre at Pentagon City near Washington, D.C., in Arlington, Virginia.
Currently, Virginia Beach's Lynnhaven Mall is the region's largest shopping center with nearly 180 stores, and is one of the region's biggest tourist draws, with the Virginia Beach oceanfront, Colonial Williamsburg, Busch Gardens Williamsburg: The Old Country and MacArthur Center.
For a long time, the indoor shopping malls were seen as largely competitive with small shopping centers and traditional downtown type areas. However, in the 1990s and since, the "big-box stores" on the Peninsula and Southside, such as Wal-mart, Home Depot, and Target have been creating a new competitive atmosphere for the shopping malls of Hampton Roads.
Several older malls such as Pembroke and Military Circle have since their grand openings have been renovated several, and others have been closed and torn down. Newmarket North Mall is now NetCenter, a business center. Coliseum Mall, in Hampton, is being redeveloped in a new style, in step with the latest commercial real estate trend: the nationwide establishment of "lifestyle centers".
|Shopping mall||Location||Number of stores||Area||Year opened|
|Lynnhaven Mall||Virginia Beach||180||1981|
|Chesapeake Square Mall||Chesapeake||130||1989|
|Patrick Henry Mall||Newport News||120||1987|
|The Gallery at Military Circle||Norfolk||120||1970|
|Pembroke Mall||Virginia Beach||100||1966|
normal seating capacity in parentheses
Hampton Roads Magazine serves as the region's only city and lifestyle glossy magazine. The publication is bimonthly and covers all of Hampton Roads, Williamsburg and the Eastern Shore.
|Television Station||Affiliation||City of License||Signed On|
|WUND 2||UNC-TV/PBS member station||Edenton, NC||1965|
|WSKY 4||Independent||Manteo, NC||2001|
|WHRO 15||PBS member station||Hampton||1961|
|WHRE 21||TBN||Virginia Beach||2006|
|WGNT 27||The CW||Portsmouth||1953|
|WVBT 43||FOX||Virginia Beach||1993|
Club Sport League Venue
The Norfolk Nighthawks were a charter member of the Arena Football League's minor league, af2. They ceased operations in 2003 after their fourth season. Also, the Virginia Beach Mariners of soccer's USL First Division were active from 1994 until 2006.
In 1997, Norfolk presented a proposal to bring an expansion hockey team to Hampton Roads. But that initiative failed. The team was going to be called the Hampton Roads Rhinos.
In addition, some of the more well known bands and artists to come out of the area are:
|Name||Stories||Height (in feet)||City||Year Built|
|The Westin Virginia Beach Town Center (Virginia Beach Town Center)||38||508||Virginia Beach||2007|
|Granby Tower (Under Construction)||31||450||Norfolk||2008|
|Armada Hoffler Tower (Virginia Beach Town Center)||23||396||Virginia Beach||2002|
|Bank of America Center||23||304||Norfolk||1967|