The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 IUPAC Style (formerly: VII, VIIA, or Group 7) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F; chlorine, Cl; bromine, Br; iodine, I; and astatine, At. The undiscovered element 117, temporarily named ununseptium, may also be a halogen.
The group of halogens is the only group which contains elements in all three familiar states of matter at standard temperature and pressure.
Owing to their high reactivity
, the halogens are found in the environment only in compounds
or as ions
ions and oxoanions
such as iodate
) can be found in many minerals and in seawater. Halogenated organic compounds
can also be found as natural products in living organisms. In their elemental forms, the halogens exist as diatomic molecules
, but these only have a fleeting existence in nature and are much more common in the laboratory and in industry. At room temperature and pressure, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine and astatine are solids; Group 7 is therefore the only periodic table group exhibiting all three states of matter
at room temperature.
The term halogen
originates from 18th century scientific French
nomenclature based on adaptations of Greek
(sea) or halas
(salt), and gen-
rate)—referring to elements which produce a salt
in union with a metal
The halogens show a number of trends when moving down the group—for instance, decreasing electronegativity and reactivity, and increasing melting and boiling point.
|Atomic Mass (g/mol)|
|Melting Point (K)|
|Boiling Point (K)|
Diatomic halogen molecules
|| d(X−X) / pm|
| d(X−X) / pm|
|| 149 |
|| 198 |
|| 227 |
|| 272 |
Halogens are highly reactive
, and as such can be harmful or lethal to biological organisms
in sufficient quantities. This high reactivity is due to the atoms being one electron short of a full outer shell of eight electrons. They can gain this electron by reacting with atoms of other elements. Fluorine
is the most reactive element in existence, attacking otherwise inert materials such as glass, and forming compounds with the heavier noble gases
. It is a corrosive and highly toxic gas. The reactivity of fluorine is such that if used or stored in laboratory glassware, it can react with glass in the presence of small amounts of water to form silicon tetrafluoride
). Thus fluorine must be handled with substances such as Teflon
, extremely dry glass, or metals such as copper or steel which form a protective layer of fluoride on their surface.
Both chlorine and bromine are used as disinfectants for drinking water, swimming pools, fresh wounds, dishes, and surfaces. They kill bacteria and other potentially harmful microorganisms through a process known as sterilization. Their reactivity is also put to use in bleaching. Sodium hypochlorite, which is produced from chlorine, is the active ingredient of most fabric bleaches and chlorine-derived bleaches are used in the production of some paper products.
The halogens all form binary compounds with hydrogen known as the hydrogen halides
, and HAt
), a series of particularly strong acids
. When in aqueous solution, the hydrogen halides are known as hydrohalic acids
. HAt, or "hydrastatic acid", should also qualify, but it is not typically included in discussions of hydrohalic acid due to astatine's extreme instability toward alpha decay
The halogens react with each other to form interhalogen compounds. Diatomic interhalogen compounds such as BrF
, and ClF
bear resemblance to the pure halogens in some respects. The properties and behaviour of a diatomic interhalogen compound tend to be intermediate between those of its parent halogens. Some properties, however, are found in neither parent halogen. For example, Cl2
are soluble in CCl4
, but ICl is not since it is a polar molecule
due to the relatively large electronegativity
difference between I and Cl.
Many synthetic organic compounds
such as plastic polymers
, and a few natural ones, contain halogen atoms; these are known as halogenated
compounds or organic halides
. Chlorine is by far the most abundant of the halogens, and the only one needed in relatively large amounts (as chloride ions) by humans. For example, chloride ions play a key role in brain
function by mediating the action of the inhibitory transmitter GABA
and are also used by the body to produce stomach acid. Iodine is needed in trace amounts for the production of thyroid
hormones such as thyroxine
. On the other hand, neither fluorine nor bromine are believed to be essential for humans, although small amounts of fluoride can make tooth enamel resistant to decay.
In drug discovery
, the incorporation of halogen atoms into a lead drug candidate results in analogues that are usually more lipophilic
and less water soluble. Consequently, halogen atoms are used to improve penetration through lipid membranes
and tissues. Consequently, there is an tendency for some halogenated drugs to accumulate in adipose tissue
The chemical reactivity of halogen atoms depends on both their point of attachment to the lead and the nature of the halogen. Aromatic halogen groups are far less reactive than aliphatic halogen groups, which can exhibit considerable chemical reactivity. For aliphatic carbon-halogen bonds the C-F bond is the strongest and usually less chemically reactive than aliphatic C-H bonds. The other aliphatic-halogen bonds are weaker, their reactivity increasing down the periodic table. They are usually more chemically reactive than aliphatic C-H bonds. Consequently, the most common halogen substitutions are the less reactive aromatic fluorine and chlorine groups.
Solubility in water
Fluorine reacts vigorously with water to produce oxygen (O2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF):
- 2 F2(g) + 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 HF(aq)
Chlorine has minimal solubility in water, with maximum solubility at 49.3°F (9.6°C) when approximately 1% is dissolved. Dissolved chlorine reacts to form hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid, a solution that can be used as a disinfectant or bleach:
- Cl2(g) + H2O(l) → HCl(aq) + HClO(aq)
Bromine has a solubility of 3.41 g per 100 g of water, but it slowly reacts to form hydrogen bromide (HBr) and hypobromous acid (HBrO):
- Br2(g) + H2O(l) → HBr(aq) + HBrO(aq)
Iodine, however, is minimally soluble in water (0.03 g/100 g water @ 20 °C) and does not react with it. However, iodine will form an aqueous solution in the presence of iodide ion, such as by addition of potassium iodide (KI), because the triiodide ion is formed.
Explanation of above periodic table slice:
|| Atomic numbers in are gases
|| Atomic numbers in are liquids
|| Atomic numbers in are solids |
| Solid borders indicate primordial elements (older than the Earth)
|| Dashed borders indicate radioactive natural elements
|| Dotted borders indicate radioactive synthetic elements
|| No borders indicates undiscovered elements