Hale

Hale

[heyl]
Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909, American author and Unitarian clergyman, b. Boston, grad. Harvard, 1839. He was the nephew of Edward Everett. The pastor of a church in Worcester, Mass. (1842-56), and of one in Boston (1856-1903), Hale was widely influential as a reformer and a prolific writer of magazine articles. From 1903 until his death he was chaplain of the U.S. Senate. His famous short novel, The Man without a Country, was published anonymously in the Atlantic Monthly in 1863. Of his voluminous writings the best are Franklin in France (1887-88), the autobiographical New England Boyhood (1893), and Memories of a Hundred Years (1902).

See E. E. Hale, Jr., The Life and Letters of Edward Everett Hale (1917); study by C. P. Hartnett (1966).

Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938, American astronomer, b. Chicago, grad. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1890. He founded and directed three great observatories (Yerkes, Mt. Wilson, and Palomar), each in its time the greatest in the world, and was active in organizing interdisciplinary scientific societies nationally and internationally. In 1895 he founded the Astrophysical Journal, which remains the leading publication in its field. He had a unique talent for raising funds from private sources in the days before massive governmental support of scientific research. The 200-in. (508-cm) reflector at Palomar Mt. is named the Hale telescope in his honor, and the Mt. Wilson and Palomar observatories were renamed (1969-86) the Hale Observatories. In his own work he pioneered the experimental study of the physical nature of the sun and stars. His observatories were also laboratories employing the latest in photographic and spectrographic techniques. In 1890 he invented the spectroheliograph, which led to the discovery of magnetic fields and vortices in sunspots. Although he studied in Germany with Helmholtz and Planck, served as the first professor of astrophysics at the Univ. of Chicago, and received many prizes and medals from scientific academies around the world, he never completed the requirements for his Ph.D. Besides technical monographs, he wrote popular books, including Depths of the Universe (1924), Beyond the Milky Way (1926), and Signals from the Stars (1931).
Hale, John Parker, 1806-73, American politician, b. Rochester, N.H. He practiced law at Dover, N.H., and had remarkable success with juries. He was U.S. district attorney (1834-41) and a member of the House of Representatives (1843-45). His refusal to vote for the annexation of Texas caused his expulsion from the Democratic party. He then (1847-53) served in the Senate as an independent and was nominated (1852) for President by the Free-Soil party. Again (1855-64) in the Senate, he was accused of questionable practices as naval committee chairman, and he was defeated (1864) for reelection. He was minister to Spain (1865-69).

See R. H. Sewell, John P. Hale and the Politics of Abolition (1965).

Hale, Sir Matthew, 1609-76, English jurist. He was successively a judge in the Court of Common Pleas (1654), chief baron of the Exchequer (1660), and chief justice of the Court of King's Bench (1671). Because of his lack of partisanship, he served under Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, and Charles II. Hale is best known for his scholarly works on criminal law, including Pleas of the Crown (1678) and History of the Pleas of the Crown (2 vol., 1736-39). His History of the Common Law of England (1713) was a pioneer work.

See biography by G. Burnet (1682, repr. 1972).

Hale, Nathan, 1755-76, American soldier, hero of the American Revolution, b. Coventry, Conn. A young schoolteacher when the Revolution broke out, he was commissioned an officer in the Connecticut militia, served in the siege of Boston, then went to take part in operations in New York. He volunteered for the dangerous mission of getting information about the British forces on Long Island, where he went in the natural disguise of a schoolmaster. Inexperienced, he revealed his mission to a former British officer, was captured, and was hanged without trial. He is remembered especially for the statement he is said to have uttered on the gallows, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."

See biography by H. P. Johnston (1914); M. Pennypacker, General Washington's Spies on Long Island and in New York (1939).

Hale, Philip, 1854-1934, American music critic, b. Norwich, Vt. He was music critic of the Boston Post (1890-91), Boston Journal (1891-1903), and Boston Herald (1903-34) and annotated the program notes of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1901 until his death. A collection of his writings was published in 1935.
Hale, Sarah Josepha (Buell), 1788-1879, American author, editor, and feminist, b. near Newport, N.H. In 1828 she became editor of the Ladies' Magazine, Boston, and in 1837 of Godey's Lady's Book, Philadelphia, where she remained over 40 years. The illustrated Lady's Book strongly influenced fashions and manners of her day. Mrs. Hale cultivated female authors and constantly urged the higher education of women. She also advocated a national Thanksgiving holiday. Her poem "Mary Had a Little Lamb" was published in her Poems for Our Children (1830).

See O. W. Burt, First Woman Editor (1960).

Hale, William Bayard, 1869-1924, American journalist, b. Richmond, Ind. An Episcopal minister, he served in several parishes before attaining a national reputation as a journalist. In 1900, Hale became managing editor of Cosmopolitan. He wrote (1912) the campaign biography of Woodrow Wilson and helped in the publicity campaign to elect him president. His report (1913) as confidential agent in Mexico implicated ambassador Henry Lane Wilson in the murder of Francisco Madero by Victoriano Huerta. The report influenced the president to recall Wilson and initiate a campaign to drive Huerta from Mexico. In 1915, Hale turned propaganda adviser for Germany until the United States entered World War I. His book, American Rights and British Pretensions on the Seas (1915), stirred American resentment of the British blockade. Denounced and ostracized in the United States, he lived in Europe after the war.

(born Jan. 18, 1858, Hollidaysburg, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 4, 1931, Idlewild, Mich.) U.S. surgeon. He graduated from Chicago Medical College. In 1891 he founded Provident Hospital in Chicago, the first interracial hospital in the U.S., to provide training for black interns and nurses. There in 1893 he performed the first successful heart surgery; the patient lived at least 20 years after Williams opened the thoracic cavity, sutured a wound of the pericardium (the sac around the heart), and closed the chest. In 1913 he became the only black charter member of the American College of Surgeons.

Learn more about Williams, Daniel Hale with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 1, 1609, Alderley, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Dec. 25, 1676, Alderley) British legal scholar. Orphaned at age 5, he planned to become a minister but ultimately chose the study of law. He defended Archbishop William Laud and other Royalists during the English Civil Wars (1642–51). As a justice of the Court of Common Pleas (1654–58) and a member of Parliament (1654–60), he played a major role in reforming the legal system and promoting the restoration of Charles II. He later became chief baron of the Exchequer (1660) and chief justice of the King's Bench (1671–76). One of the greatest scholars of the history of English common law, he is best known for his History of the Pleas of the Crown (published 1736).

Learn more about Hale, Sir Matthew with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 6, 1755, Coventry, Conn.—died Sept. 22, 1776, Manhattan Island, N.Y., U.S.) American Revolutionary officer. After graduating from Yale University (1773), he became a schoolteacher. In 1775 he joined a Connecticut regiment and took part in the siege of Boston. Made a captain in 1776, he helped capture a British provision sloop on Long Island. Volunteering for spy duty, he penetrated British lines but was captured while returning and hanged without trial the next day at the age of 21. His last words reportedly were, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country,” a remark similar to one made in Joseph Addison's play Cato.

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(born March 31, 1806, Rochester, N.H., U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1873, Dover, N.H.) U.S. politician and reformer. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–45), where he achieved prominence as an opponent of slavery. In the U.S. Senate (1847–53, 1855–65), he sponsored a bill abolishing flogging in the navy. In 1852 he was the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Free Soil Party. He returned to the Senate as a Republican and became a leader of that party. He later served as U.S. minister to Spain (1865–69).

Learn more about Hale, John Parker with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 1, 1609, Alderley, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Dec. 25, 1676, Alderley) British legal scholar. Orphaned at age 5, he planned to become a minister but ultimately chose the study of law. He defended Archbishop William Laud and other Royalists during the English Civil Wars (1642–51). As a justice of the Court of Common Pleas (1654–58) and a member of Parliament (1654–60), he played a major role in reforming the legal system and promoting the restoration of Charles II. He later became chief baron of the Exchequer (1660) and chief justice of the King's Bench (1671–76). One of the greatest scholars of the history of English common law, he is best known for his History of the Pleas of the Crown (published 1736).

Learn more about Hale, Sir Matthew with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 6, 1755, Coventry, Conn.—died Sept. 22, 1776, Manhattan Island, N.Y., U.S.) American Revolutionary officer. After graduating from Yale University (1773), he became a schoolteacher. In 1775 he joined a Connecticut regiment and took part in the siege of Boston. Made a captain in 1776, he helped capture a British provision sloop on Long Island. Volunteering for spy duty, he penetrated British lines but was captured while returning and hanged without trial the next day at the age of 21. His last words reportedly were, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country,” a remark similar to one made in Joseph Addison's play Cato.

Learn more about Hale, Nathan with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 31, 1806, Rochester, N.H., U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1873, Dover, N.H.) U.S. politician and reformer. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–45), where he achieved prominence as an opponent of slavery. In the U.S. Senate (1847–53, 1855–65), he sponsored a bill abolishing flogging in the navy. In 1852 he was the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Free Soil Party. He returned to the Senate as a Republican and became a leader of that party. He later served as U.S. minister to Spain (1865–69).

Learn more about Hale, John Parker with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 29, 1868, Chicago, Ill.—died Feb. 21, 1938, Pasadena, Calif., U.S.) U.S. astronomer. He studied at Harvard and in Berlin. In 1888 he organized the Kenwood Observatory in Chicago. In 1892 he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago and began organizing the Yerkes Observatory, of which he was director until 1904; there he built the 40-in. (1-m) refracting telescope that remains the largest of its type in the world. He established the Astrophysical Journal in 1895. In 1904 he organized the Mount Wilson Observatory and was its director until 1923. There he built solar apparatus of great power as well as the huge 60-in. (1.5-m) and 100-in. (2.5-m) reflecting telescopes. In 1928 he began work on a 200-in. (5-m) reflecting telescope at Caltech's Palomar Observatory; completed in 1948, it was named in his honour. As a researcher, he is known particularly for his discovery of magnetic fields in sunspots.

Learn more about Hale, George E(llery) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 29, 1868, Chicago, Ill.—died Feb. 21, 1938, Pasadena, Calif., U.S.) U.S. astronomer. He studied at Harvard and in Berlin. In 1888 he organized the Kenwood Observatory in Chicago. In 1892 he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago and began organizing the Yerkes Observatory, of which he was director until 1904; there he built the 40-in. (1-m) refracting telescope that remains the largest of its type in the world. He established the Astrophysical Journal in 1895. In 1904 he organized the Mount Wilson Observatory and was its director until 1923. There he built solar apparatus of great power as well as the huge 60-in. (1.5-m) and 100-in. (2.5-m) reflecting telescopes. In 1928 he began work on a 200-in. (5-m) reflecting telescope at Caltech's Palomar Observatory; completed in 1948, it was named in his honour. As a researcher, he is known particularly for his discovery of magnetic fields in sunspots.

Learn more about Hale, George E(llery) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 18, 1858, Hollidaysburg, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 4, 1931, Idlewild, Mich.) U.S. surgeon. He graduated from Chicago Medical College. In 1891 he founded Provident Hospital in Chicago, the first interracial hospital in the U.S., to provide training for black interns and nurses. There in 1893 he performed the first successful heart surgery; the patient lived at least 20 years after Williams opened the thoracic cavity, sutured a wound of the pericardium (the sac around the heart), and closed the chest. In 1913 he became the only black charter member of the American College of Surgeons.

Learn more about Williams, Daniel Hale with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Haleiwa is a North Shore community and census-designated place (CDP) in the Waialua District of the Island of Oahu, City & County of Honolulu. In 1898 a businessman named Benjamin Dillingham opened a hotel in the North Shore area and named it Haleiwa. In Hawaiian, hale means "house", and the iwa is a Frigatebird. As of the 2000 Census, the CDP had a total population of 2,225, and is the largest commercial center on the North Shore of the Island. Its old plantation town character is preserved in many of the buildings, making this a popular destination for tourists and residents alike, visiting surfing and diving sites along the north shore.

Haleiwa is located on Waialua Bay, the mouth of Anahulu Stream (also known as Anahulu River). A small boat harbor is located here, and the shore of the bay is surrounded by Haleiwa Beach Park (north side) and Haleiwa Alii Beach Park (south side). Further west from the center of town is Kaiaka State Recreation Area on Kiaka Point beside Kaiaka Bay.

On December 7th, 1941 the only fighter aircraft who managed to scramble against the Japanese attacking Pearl Harbor took off from the now abandoned Haleiwa Airfield.

The U.S. postal code for Haleiwa, including Kawailoa, is 96712.

Geography

Haleiwa is located at 21°35'24" North, 158°6'50" West (21.590050, -158.113928), southwest along Kamehameha Highway (State Rte. 83) from Pūpūkea. At Haleiwa, Kamehameha Highway becomes State Rte. 99 (at the traffic circle known as Weed Circle), which runs eastward up across the Oahu central plateau to Wahiawā. A new bypass route (Joseph P. Leong Highway) avoids both the traffic circle and Haleiwa, extending State Rte 83 to just north of Haleiwa town. Haleiwa Road and both Kaukonahua Road and Waialua Beach Road from Weed Circle go south and southwest into Waialua across Paukauila Stream. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.6 km² (2.5 mi²). 4.7 km² (1.8 mi²) of it is land and 1.8 km² (0.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 28.06% water.

Demographics

As of the 2000 Census, there were 2,225 people, 770 households, and 525 families residing in the CDP. The population density was then 469.4/km² (1,218.1/mi²). There were 867 housing units at an average density of 182.9/km² (474.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 24.63% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 28.85% Asian, 9.98% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, and 34.92% from two or more races. 10.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 770 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.7% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.46.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.1 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,643, and the median income for a family was $48,553. Males had a median income of $31,750 versus $25,163 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $16,504. 17.6% of the population and 15.0% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 26.2% of those under the age of 18 and 6.7% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

References

External links

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