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Hahn

Hahn

[hahn]
Hahn, James Kenneth, 1951-, American politician. Born into a Los Angeles political family, he is a Democratic lawyer who first served in city government (1981-85) as controller. As city attorney (1985-2001), he established gang and domestic violence units and worked to prosecute violators in such areas as housing, elder abuse, gun and tobacco control, consumer fraud, and environmental crimes. Hahn was elected mayor in 2001 after the retirement of Richard J. Riordan, but he failed in his 2005 reelection bid, losing to Antonio Villaraigosa.
Hahn, Otto, 1879-1968, German chemist and physicist. His important contributions in the field of radioactivity include the discovery of several radioactive substances, the development of methods of separating radioactive particles and of studying chemical problems by the use of radioactive indicators, and the formation of artificial radioactive elements by bombarding uranium and thorium with neutrons. He received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for splitting the uranium atom (1939) and discovering the possibility of chain reactions. The development of the atomic bomb was based on this work. Hahn was a member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Chemistry, Berlin, from 1912 and director from 1928 to 1944. He was in Allied custody (1944-46) and on his return to Germany became head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft, Göttingen (later reorganized as the Max Planck Gesellschaft).
Hahn, Reynaldo, 1875-1947, French musician. Hahn was born in Venezuela and was taken to Paris at three. Among his teachers was Massenet. He wrote much incidental music, songs, operettas, and other works. As a conductor he specialized in Mozart operas. In 1945 he became a director of the Paris Opéra.

(born March 8, 1879, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.—died July 28, 1968, Göttingen, W.Ger.) German physical chemist. He worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry (1912–44), serving as director from 1928. With Lise Meitner he discovered several radioelements. In 1938, with Meitner and Fritz Strassmann (1902–80), he found the first chemical evidence of nuclear-fission products, created when they bombarded uranium with neutrons. For his discovery of nuclear fission, Hahn was awarded a 1944 Nobel Prize. He became president of the Max Planck Society; a respected public figure, he spoke out strongly against further development of nuclear weapons. In 1966 he shared the Enrico Fermi Award with Meitner and Strassmann.

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(born March 8, 1879, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.—died July 28, 1968, Göttingen, W.Ger.) German physical chemist. He worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry (1912–44), serving as director from 1928. With Lise Meitner he discovered several radioelements. In 1938, with Meitner and Fritz Strassmann (1902–80), he found the first chemical evidence of nuclear-fission products, created when they bombarded uranium with neutrons. For his discovery of nuclear fission, Hahn was awarded a 1944 Nobel Prize. He became president of the Max Planck Society; a respected public figure, he spoke out strongly against further development of nuclear weapons. In 1966 he shared the Enrico Fermi Award with Meitner and Strassmann.

Learn more about Hahn, Otto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Ida Gräfin von Hahn-Hahn (en: Countess Ida von Hahn-Hahn) (June 22, 1805 - January 12, 1880) was a German author.

She was born at Tressow, in the duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of Carl Friedrich Graf (Count) von Hahn (1782-1857), well known for his enthusiasm for stage productions, upon which he squandered a large portion of his fortune, and granddaughter of Friedrich Graf von Hahn, the philosopher and astronomer.

She married, in 1826, her wealthy cousin Friedrich Wilhelm Adolph Graf von Hahn, which gave her the doubled name. With him she had an extremely unhappy life, and in 1829, even before the birth of her mentally retarded daughter Antonie Gräfin von Hahn (1829-1856), her husband's irregularities led to a divorce. The existence of a second child, a son, by her partner and travelling companion Adolf Baron Bystram, supposedly born in 1830 and, like her daughter, put in someone's professional care, cannot be ascertained, neither in the more than 1000 letters by her or to her nor anywhere else. The countess travelled, produced some volumes of poetry with true lyrical feeling, and in 1838 appeared as a novelist with Aus der Gesellschaft, a title which, proving equally applicable to her subsequent novels, was retained as that of a series, the book originally so entitled being renamed Ilda Schönholm.

For several years the countess continued to produce novels bearing a certain subjective resemblance to those of George Sand, but less hostile to social institutions, and dealing almost exclusively with aristocratic society. The author's patrician leanings at length drew upon her the merciless ridicule of Fanny Lewald in a parody of her style entitled Diogena. Roman von Iduna Gräfin H..-H.. (1847), and this, as well as the death of Adolf Bystram in 1849, and the revolution of 1848 seem to have co-operated in inducing her to embrace the Roman Catholic religion in 1850. She justified her step in a polemical work entitled Von Babylon nach Jerusalem (1851), which elicited a vigorous reply from Heinrich Abeken, and from several others as well.

From November 1852 until February 1853 she retired into the Convent du Bon-Pasteur at Angers/France, which she, however, soon left, taking up her residence at Mainz where she founded the convent Vom Guten Hirten, in which she lived from 1854 until her death, without joining the order, and continued her literary labours.

For many years her novels were the most popular works of fiction in aristocratic circles; many of her later publications, however, passed unnoticed as mere religious manifestoes. Her earlier works do not deserve the neglect into which they have fallen. If their sentimentalism is sometimes wearisome, her writings are grounded on genuine feeling and expressed with passionate eloquence. Ulrich and Gräfin Faustine, both published in 1841, mark the culmination of her power; but Sigismund Forster (1843), Cecil (1844), Sibylle (1846) and Maria Regina (1860) also obtained considerable popularity. She died at Mainz on the 12th of January 1880.

The posthumous papers of Ida Hahn-Hahn include ca. 730 autograph units, consisting of ca. 520 letters written by her and more than 180 letters written to her, as well as book and poetry manuscripts. Since 2006/2007 they are part of the Fritz Reuter Literaturarchiv Hans-Joachim Griephan Berlin which also keeps a file of letters from and to Ida Hahn-Hahn. The holdings include correspondence of singular importance for her life and her works, among them the correspondence, from 1844/1845, with Hermann Fürst (Prince) Pückler-Muskau.

Her collected works, Gesammelte Werke, with an introduction by Otto von Schaching, were published in two series, 45 volumes in all (Regensburg, 1903-1904). See Heinrich Keiter, Ida Gräfin Hahn-Hahn, ein Lebens- und Literaturbild (Würzburg, 1879/80); Paul Haffner, Gräfin Ida Hahn-Hahn, eine psychologische Studie (Frankfurt, 1880); Alinda Jacoby, Ida Gräfin Hahn-Hahn, Novellistisches Lebensbild (Mainz, 1894); Gert Oberembt, Ida Gräfin Hahn-Hahn, Weltschmerz und Ultramontanismus (Bonn, 1980).

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