Gurdjieff, George Ivanovich
, 1872-1949, Armenian spiritualist and author. After spending years traveling, Gurdjieff settled in Moscow (c.1913). He fled the Russian Revolution (1917) with a band of followers, settling in Fontainebleau, France, where he established the Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man (1922). He taught that ordinary people could attain a higher state of awareness and take control over their lives. Disciples in the United States organized the Gurdjieff Foundation of New York (1953) and a similar group in San Francisco (1958). His writings include Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson
(1950) and Meetings with Remarkable Men
See studies by K. Walker (1980) and J. Webb (1980).
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