[goog-uhn-hahym, goo-guhn-]
Guggenheim, family of American industrialists and philanthropists. Meyer Guggenheim, 1828-1905, b. Aargau canton, Switzerland, emigrated (1847) to the United States, prospered as a retail merchant in Philadelphia, and in time built up a flourishing business importing Swiss embroidery. When nearly 60 he purchased from friends some Colorado mining property. Sensing that sure profits were in processing rather than in mining, he built large smelters in Colorado and Mexico and a refinery at Perth Amboy, N.J. The expansion of the Guggenheim enterprises was accelerated by seven well-trained sons—Isaac, Daniel, Murry, Solomon, Benjamin, Simon, and William—who filled strategic places in the Guggenheim organization. Daniel Guggenheim, 1856-1930, b. Philadelphia, was largely responsible for combining (1901) the Guggenheim interests with the American Smelting and Refining Company, of which he became president. The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation, devoted to aeronautical research and development, represents his principal philanthropy. His son, Harry Frank Guggenheim, 1890-1971, b. West End, N.J., fought in the two world wars, served in international conferences, was (1929-33) ambassador to Cuba, and was cofounder with his wife of the Long Island newspaper Newsday. Daniel's brother, Simon Guggenheim, 1867-1941, b. Philadelphia, served (1907-13) as U.S. Senator from Colorado. With his wife he established (1925) in memory of their son the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, which grants scores of fellowships annually to scholars, writers, artists, and scientists. Another brother of Daniel, Solomon Robert Guggenheim, 1861-1949, b. Philadelphia, established a foundation to increase public appreciation of modern art. The foundation created (1937) in New York City the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum for modern art.

See H. O'Conner, The Guggenheims (1937).

Guggenheim, Peggy (Marguerite Guggenheim), 1898-1979, American modern art patron and collector, b. New York City. The daughter of Benjamin, niece of Solomon, and grand-daughter of Meyer Guggenheim, she grew up in luxury, inherited a fortune, and became a friend, patron, and sometime lover to a number of avant-garde artists and writers. She moved to Paris (1930) and then to London, where she opened (1938) Guggenheim Jeune, a gallery showing mainly abstract and surrealist art, e.g., works by Brancusi, Kandinsky, Magritte, and Max Ernst, whom she married (and divorced). World War II impelled her return (1941) to New York, where she opened (1942) Art of This Century, one of the earliest and most important venues for abstract expressionism, a movement whose artists she actively supported. Guggenheim amassed a superb collection of modern art, which was installed in her Venice palazzo when she moved there in 1946. The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is now administered by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation.

See her memoirs (1946 and 1960, combined and updated 1980); biographies by J. B. Weld (1986) and A. Gill (2002); L. Flint, Handbook: The Peggy Guggenheim Collection (1983), L. Tacou-Rumney, Peggy Guggenheim: A Collector's Album (1996).

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