Australian Aboriginal English
(AAE) is a term referring to the various varieties of the English language
used by Indigenous Australians
. These varieties, which developed differently in different parts of Australia
, vary along a continuum, from forms close to standard English to more nonstandard forms. The furthest extent of this is Kriol
, which is regarded by linguists as a distinct language from English. Speakers change between different forms according to social context.
Several features of AAE are shared with creole languages spoken in nearby countries, such as Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea, Pijin in the Solomon Islands, and Bislama in Vanuatu.
AAE terms, or derivative terms, are sometimes used by the broader Australian community. This is particularly true in outback areas, where the indigenous population is generally more significant than in urban and suburban areas.
are masculine pronouns in standard English, in Aboriginal English, particularly in northern Australia, it may also be used for females and inanimate objects. The distinction between he
as the nominative
form and him
as the accusative
form is not always observed, and him
may be found as the subject of a verb.
In some forms of Aboriginal English, fellow
(also spelt fella
etc.) is used in combination with adjectives or numerals, e.g. big fella business
= "important business", one-feller girl
= "one girl". This can give it an adverbial meaning, e.g. sing out big fella
= "call out loudly". It is also used with pronouns to indicate the plural, e.g. me fella
= "we" or "us", you fella
Words referring to one's relatives are used in different senses to Standard English, reflecting traditional kinship systems.
- Aunty and uncle are used as terms of address for older people, to whom the speaker may not be related.
- Brother and sister include close relatives of the same generation, not just siblings.
- Cousin includes any relative of one's own generation.
- The combinations cousin-brother and cousin-sister are used to refer to biological cousins.
- In south-east Queensland, daughter is used to refer to any woman of one's great-grandparents' generation. This is due to the cyclical nature of traditional kinship systems.
- Father and mother include any relative of one's parents' generation, such as uncles, aunts, and in-laws.
- Grandfather and grandmother can refer to anyone of one's grandparents' generation. Grandfather can also refer to any respected elderly man, to whom the speaker may not be related.
- Poison refers to a relation one is obligated to avoid. See Mother-in-law language.
- The term second, or little bit in northern Australia, is used with a distant relative who is described using a close kinship term. For example, one's second fathers or little bit fathers are men of one's father's generation not closely related to the speaker. It is contrasted with close, near or true.
- A skin or skin group are sections which are determined by the skin of a person's parents, and determine who a person is eligible to marry.
- Son can refer to any male of the next generation, such as nephews.
Many Aborigines use the word business
in a distinct way, to mean matters
. Funeral and mourning practices are commonly known as Sorry Business
. Financial matters are referred to as Money Business
, and the secret-sacred rituals distinct to each sex are referred to as Secret Women's Business
and Secret Men's Business
Many Aborigines refer to their house as their camp, particularly in Central Australia
and the Top End
of the Northern Territory
Deadly is used by many Aboriginal people to mean excellent, very good, in the same way that wicked
is by other English speakers. The Deadlys
are awarded for outstanding achievement by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people. This usage is not exclusive to Aborigines.
English word for pretend
. Still used by some Australian Aborigines to mean joking generally. Gammoning – usually pronounced Gam'in
Australian language expert, Sidney J. Baker, lists "gammon" used by "whitefellas" as "falsehood".
is a term used by some Aboriginal people to refer to white people. It is a shortening of the word Government
, since traditionally Aboriginal people's contact with whites most often involved government officials. Another theory is that it is a contraction of Governor
. It has also been said to mean "White Ghost".
in broader English (see Charles Dickens
character) means nonsensical, or unimportant information, humbug in Aboriginal English means to pester with inane or repetitive requests. The Warumpi Band
's most recent album is entitled Too Much Humbug
. In the Northern Territory
, humbug is used by both black and white in this latter, Aboriginal way.
Regularly used to mean a group of people. Unlike broader English, it does not usually mean an indiscriminate crowd, but a cohesive group. My mob – my people, or extended family. Mob is also often used to refer to a language group – that Warlpiri mob
. This term is also found in the name of outback New South Wales
hip-hop group, The Wilcannia Mob
English word for a long story, often with incredible or unbelievable events. In Australian English
, and particularly among Aborigines, has become a verb, to talk. Often, Yarnin