Guadix

Guadix

Guadix, town (1990 pop. 20,975), Granada prov., S Spain, in Andalusia. It is the center of a farm area growing olives, flax, wheat, and hemp. Guadix was a Roman colony and, under the Visigoths, an episcopal see. It contains an 18th-century cathedral and the remains of a Moorish citadel. Just outside the city are many picturesque caves inhabited by Gypsies.
Guadix, a city of southern Spain, in the province of Granada; on the left bank of the river Guadix, a sub-tributary of the Guadiana Menor, and on the Madrid-Valdepeñas-Almería railway. Pop. (2002) 20,042 inhabitants.

Description

Guadix occupies part of an elevated plateau among the northern foothills of the Sierra Nevada. It is surrounded by ancient walls, and was formerly dominated by a Moorish castle, now in ruins. It is an episcopal see of great antiquity, and its cathedral, built between the 16th and 18th century on the site of a mosque, combines three architectural styles (Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque).

The city was once famous for its cutlery; but its modern manufactures (chiefly earthenware, hempen goods, and hats) are inconsiderable. It has some trade in wool, cotton, flax, corn and liqueurs. The warm mineral springs of Graena, much frequented during the summer, are 6 miles west.

The most famous feature of the town is the cave dwellings in the Barrio Troglodyte where upwards of half the population live. These caves are in no way primitive dwellings and are a solution to the fierce heat of the Granadin summer.

History

Guadix el Viejo, 6 km/5 miles northwest, was the Roman Acci mentioned in Pliny's Natural History and as Akki by Ptolemy, who placed it among the Bastetani. Acci (Accitum) was the name of the old city situated in the region of the Bastetanos, whose capital was Baza. It is not known for certain whether it is of Phoenician or of early Spanish origin. According to Macrobius, the primitive inhabitants paid homage to Mars under the name of Neton. Julius Caesar established the Roman colony called Julia Gemella. According to tradition, it was the seat of the first bishopric in Hispania, in the 2nd century.

After 711 it rose to some importance as a Moorish fortress and trading station, renamed Wadi-Aci ("the Wadi of Acci" It was surrendered without a siege to the Spaniards, under Ferdinand and Isabella, in 1489.

Ecclesiastical history

The diocese of Guadix comprises the greater part of the Province of Granada and a portion of the Province of Almería.

The legend of the Seven Apostolic Men preserved in the Mozarabic Missal places the episcopal see of St. Torquatus in Guadix, and names him as one of the seven. The matron Luparia built a baptistery and primitive church. From then until 303, when Felix presided at the Council of Elvira, there is no record preserved of the Accitanian bishops.

Liliolus attended the Third Council of Toledo in 589, and the names of the Accitanian bishops are to be found among those who attended the other Toletan councils; Clarencius at the fourth and fifth; Justus at the sixth; Julian at the eighth; Magnarius at the ninth and tenth; and Ricila, the last bishop whose name has come down to us before the Mohammedan invasion, at subsequent ones.

In the Mozarabic period the diocese of Guadix continued to exist. Isidorus Pacensis mentions Frodoarius, who presided seven years over the See of Guadix. Quiricus assisted at the Council of Córdoba before 839.

The Almohades, in the twelfth century, destroyed this together with the other Andalusian sees; it was not restored until the time of the Catholic sovereigns. Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza, Archbishop of Toledo, erected the new see on 21 May, 1492, in virtue of the Apostolic commission of Innocent VIII granted on 4 August, 1486, restoring, by right of postliminium, the Apostolic rank possessed by the see previous to the Islamic invasion. The diocese of Baza, founded in 1306, was united to the See of Guadix in 1493.

The modern cathedral, on the site occupied by the principal mosque, was commenced in 1710 and completed in 1796. The Seminary of St. Torquatus was founded by Bishop Juan José Fonseca in 1595; Charles IV of Spain founded an hospice in 1803, and the present hospital occupies the ancient Jesuit college. Bishop Timotes Hernández Mulas, b. at Morales del Vino, in the diocese of Zamora, 22 Aug., 1856, ordained in 1882, consecrated at Cuenca, 26 April, 1908, succeeded Mgr. Maximiano Fernandez del Rincon y Soto Davila in the See of Guadix. In the early 20th century the diocese had about 116,000 Catholics, 62 parishes, 87 churches, 87 chapels, and 162 priests. There is a Franciscan friary at Baza, homes of the Little Sisters of the Poor at Guadix and Baza, Presentation, Franciscan, Conceptionists and Poor Clare nuns at Guadix.

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