Definitions

grofé

Ferde Grofé

[groh-fey, gruh-f-ey]
Ferde Grofé (March 27 1892April 3 1972) was an American pianist, arranger and composer.

Early biography

Born Ferdinand Rudolph von Grofé, in New York City, Grofe came by his myriad musical interests naturally. Of French Huguenot extraction, his family had four generations of classical musicians. His father, Emil von Grofé, was a baritone who sang mainly light opera and his mother, Elsa Johanna von Grofé, was a professional cellist. She was also a versatile music teacher who taught Ferde to play the violin and piano. Elsa's father, Bernardt Bierlich, was a cellist in the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra in New York and Elsa's brother, Julius Bierlich, was first violinist and concertmaster of the Los Angeles Symphony.

Ferde's father died in 1899 and Elsa took Ferde abroad to study piano, viola and composition in Leipzig, Germany. Given such a musical background, it is perhaps understandable that Ferde became proficient over a remarkable range of instruments including piano (his favored instrument), violin, viola (he became a violist in the LA Symphony), baritone horn, alto horn and cornet.

This command of musical instruments and composition gave Ferde the foundation to later become first an arranger of other composers' music and then an orchestrator of his own compositions.

Grofé left home at the age of 14 and variously worked as a milkman, truck driver, usher, newsboy, elevator operator, helper in a book bindery, iron factory worker, and as a piano player in a bar for two dollars a night and as an accompanist. He continued studying piano and violin. When he was 15 he was performing with dance bands. He also played the alto horn in brass bands. He was 17 when he wrote his first commissioned work.

With Paul Whiteman

Beginning about 1920, he played the jazz piano with the Paul Whiteman orchestra. He served as Whiteman's chief arranger from 1920-1932. He made hundreds of arrangements of popular songs, Broadway show music, and tunes of all types for Whiteman.

Grofé's most memorable arrangement is that of George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, which established Grofé's reputation among jazz musicians. Grofé took what Gershwin had written for two pianos and orchestrated it for Whiteman's jazz orchestra. He transformed Gershwin's musical canvas with the colors and many of the creative touches for which it is so well known. He went on to create two more arrangements of the piece in later years. Grofé's 1942 orchestration for full orchestra of Rhapsody in Blue is the one most frequently heard today.

Due to Grofé's ubiquity in arranging large-scale musical works and a perceived paucity of American achievements in serious music, the German conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler complained that "America has no composers, only arrangers."

During this time, Grofé also recorded piano rolls for the Ampico company in New York. These were embellished with extra notes after the recording took place to attempt to convey the thick lush nature of his orchestra's style, and are marked "Played by Ferde Grofé (assisted)".

After leaving Paul Whiteman

During the 1930s, he was the orchestra leader on several radio programs, including Fred Allen's show and his own The Ferde Grofé Show. In 1944 he was a panelist on A Song Is Born, judging the works of unknown composers.

Grofé was later employed as a conductor and faculty member at the Juilliard School of Music where he taught orchestration.

Grofé's compositions

In addition to being an arranger, Grofé was also a serious composer in his own right. While still with Whiteman, in 1925, he wrote Mississippi Suite, which Whiteman recorded in shortened format in 1927. He wrote a number of other pieces, including a theme for the New York World's Fair of 1939 and suites for Niagara Falls and the Hudson River.

Today, Grofé remains most famous for his Grand Canyon Suite (1931) a work regarded highly enough to be recorded for RCA Victor with mastery by Arturo Toscanini and the NBC Symphony (in Carnegie Hall in 1945, with the composer present). The earlier Mississippi Suite is also occasionally performed and recorded. Grofé conducted the Grand Canyon Suite and his piano concerto (with pianist Jesús Maria Sanromá) for Everest Records in 1960.

He also composed original film music, including the scores to Minstrel Man (1944), Time Out of Mind (1947), Rocketship X-M (1950) and The Return of Jesse James (1950).

Ferde Grofé died in Santa Monica, California at the age of 80. He was buried in the Mausoleum of the Golden West at the Inglewood Park Cemetery in Inglewood, California.

Composition list

Grofé composed a number of original pieces of his own in a symphonic jazz style. Grofé's works include:

His soundtrack to the 1950 science fiction film Rocketship X-M included the use of the theremin. His monumental Grand Canyon Suite is his best known work, a masterpiece in orchestration and evocation of mood and location.

Selected discography

  • Grofé's Grand Canyon Suite, performed by the NBC Symphony, conducted by Arturo Toscanini. On LP and on the recently out-of-print CD, it is coupled with works by George Gershwin, and (on the CD) Samuel Barber and John Philip Sousa.
  • Grofé's Grand Canyon Suite, performed by the New York Philharmonic (with John Corigliano, Sr.as the violin soloist) conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Coupled with Bernstein conducting Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue (with Bernstein at the piano) and An American in Paris (Sony 63086)
  • Grofé's Grand Canyon Suite, performed by the Detroit Symphony Orchestra conducted by Antál Dorati. Coupled with Dorati conducting Gershwin's Porgy and Bess: A Symphonic Picture (London/Decca Jubilee 430712)
  • Symphonic Jazz: Grofé and Gershwin, performed by the Harmonie Ensemble/New York conducted by Steven Richman (Bridge Records 9212), playing:
    • Grofé's Mississippi Suite (the original Whiteman Orchestra version)
    • Gershwin's Second Rhapsody for Orchestra with Piano arranged by Grofé, with Lincoln Mayorga on the piano (premiere recording)
    • Grofé's Gallodoro's Serenade for Saxophone and Piano with Al Gallodoro on alto saxophone and Mayorga on piano (premiere recording)
    • Grofé's Grand Canyon Suite (original Whiteman Orchestra version; first complete recording)

References

  • Liner notes by Don Rayno for Symphonic Jazz: Grofé and Gershwin (Bridge Records 9212)

External links

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