are deep-sea aulopiform
in the small family Chlorophthalmidae
. Thought to have a circumglobal distribution in tropical and temperate waters, the family contains just 18 species in two genera. The family name Chlorophthalmidae
derives from the Greek
meaning "green" and ophthalmos
Some species are of interest to commercial and subsistence fisheries; the fish are made into fish meal or sold fresh.
Aptly named after their disproportionately large, iridescent
(as well as fluorescent
) eyes, greeneyes are slender fish with slightly compressed bodies; the largest species
, the Shortnose greeneye (Chlorophthalmus agassizi
) reaching a length of 40 centimetres
). Their heads are small with large jaws; coloration ranges from a yellowish to blackish brown, some species with cryptic blotches.
Their fins are simple and spineless; aside from their eyes, some species also have iridescent patches covering the head and body.
Behaviour and reproduction
Greeneyes are generally deepwater fish, found from 50 to about 1,000 metres
. They seem to prefer the continental slopes
, possibly forming schools. Greeneyes are known to primarily feed on benthic invertebrates
, as well as pelagic crustaceans
such as decapods
Like many members of the Aulopiformes, greeneyes are hermaphroditic; this is thought to be a great advantage in deep-sea habitats, where the chances of running into a compatible mate are uncertain. Young and larval greeneyes are pelagic rather than benthic, staying within the upper levels of the water column. Hake are known predators of greeneyes.
The genus Bathysauroides
is sometimes classified with the greeneyes, but this article follows FishBase
in placing it in its own family, Bathysauroididae
There are 18 species in two genera:
- Genus Chlorophthalmus
- Chlorophthalmus acutifrons Hiyama, 1940.
- Shortnose greeneye, Chlorophthalmus agassizi Bonaparte, 1840.
- Chlorophthalmus albatrossis Jordan & Starks, 1904.
- Atlantic greeneye, Chlorophthalmus atlanticus Poll, 1953.
- Spinyjaw greeneye, Chlorophthalmus bicornis Norman, 1939.
- Chlorophthalmus borealis Kuronuma & Yamaguchi, 1941.
- Chlorophthalmus brasiliensis Mead, 1958.
- Chlorophthalmus chalybeius (Goode, 1881).
- Chlorophthalmus corniger Alcock, 1894.
- Chlorophthalmus ichthyandri Kotlyar & Parin, 1986.
- Chlorophthalmus mento Garman, 1899.
- Chlorophthalmus nigromarginatus Kamohara, 1953.
- Chlorophthalmus pectoralis Okamura & Doi, 1984.
- Chlorophthalmus proridens Gilbert & Cramer, 1897.
- Spotted greeneye, Chlorophthalmus punctatus Gilchrist, 1904.
- Chlorophthalmus zvezdae Kotlyar & Parin, 1986.
- Genus Parasudis