Greenberg

Greenberg

[green-burg]
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-94, American art critic, b. New York City. Greenberg's criticism was primarily concerned with art produced after abstract expressionism. This art, now known as color-field painting, he termed post-painterly abstraction, reflecting Heinrich Wölfflin's theory that painterly and linear styles alternate through the ages. In his essay collection Art and Culture (1961), Greenberg argued that the essence of modern art, especially painting, lies in its purely visual content. Greenberg's philosophy of art was outlined in a series of lectures posthumously published as Homemade Esthetics (1999).

See biography by F. Rubenfeld (1998).

Greenberg, Joseph Harold, 1915-, American anthropologist and linguist, b. New York City, grad. Columbia (A.B., 1936) and Northwestern Univ. (Ph.D., 1940). He was a professor of anthropology at Columbia (1948-62), afterward joining (1962) the faculty of Stanford Univ. His first major area of research was the classification of African languages, which he divided into four families: Niger-Kordofanian, Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan, and Khoisan. He later became interested in language universals. Among his writings are The Languages of Africa (1963), Anthropological Linguistics (1968), Language, Culture, and Communication (1971), and Universals of Human Language (1978).

(born May 28, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died May 7, 2001, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. anthropologist and linguist. He received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He eschewed more orthodox methods of historical linguistics for the approach he termed “mass” or “multilateral” comparison, which involved looking for phonetic resemblances among words in many languages simultaneously. His 1963 classification of African languages into four families (Afroasiatic, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Khoisan) was widely accepted. However, his 1987 classification of all American Indian languages into just two families, Amerind and Na-Dene (see Athabaskan languages) provoked a rancorous denunciation by specialists, who faulted both his data and his method.

Learn more about Greenberg, Joseph H(arold) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 28, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died May 7, 2001, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. anthropologist and linguist. He received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He eschewed more orthodox methods of historical linguistics for the approach he termed “mass” or “multilateral” comparison, which involved looking for phonetic resemblances among words in many languages simultaneously. His 1963 classification of African languages into four families (Afroasiatic, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Khoisan) was widely accepted. However, his 1987 classification of all American Indian languages into just two families, Amerind and Na-Dene (see Athabaskan languages) provoked a rancorous denunciation by specialists, who faulted both his data and his method.

Learn more about Greenberg, Joseph H(arold) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Greenberg is a surname common in North America, anglicized from the German surname Grünberg (green mountain). It may refer to:

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