Green

Green

[green]
Green, Andrew Haswell, 1820-1903, American civic leader, b. Worcester, Mass. He read law under Samuel J. Tilden and became his partner. Prominent in civic affairs of New York City, he held a number of offices, was largely responsible for much of the park system (notably Riverside Drive, Morningside, and Fort Washington parks), and accomplished financial reform. However, he is mainly remembered as the chief advocate of a plan to merge New York City and neighboring cities to make up Greater New York. He was chairman of the commission that in 1897 drew up the plan by which Greater New York was established in 1898. He also helped to bring about the union of the Astor and Lenox foundations into the New York Public Library with funds left by Tilden.

See biography by J. Foord (1913).

Green, Anna Katherine, 1846-1935, American detective-story writer, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., grad. Ripley Female College, Poultney, Vt., 1867. Of her many thrillers, characterized by logical construction and a knowledge of criminal law, The Leavenworth Case (1878) is the best known.
Green, Bartholomew, 1666-1732, early American printer, b. Cambridge, Mass.; the son of Samuel Green. He inherited his father's press in Cambridge in 1692 and moved it to Boston. He had the patronage of the government and of Harvard and became the foremost printer in New England. Except for four years Green printed the Boston News-Letter, the first American newspaper, from its inception in 1704 until his death. In 1722 he became its publisher also. His son-in-law, John Draper, succeeded to the News-Letter.
Green, Duff, 1791-1875, American journalist and politician, b. Woodford co., Ky. After service in the War of 1812, he settled in Missouri, where he became (1824) editor of the St. Louis Enquirer. He moved (1825) to Washington, D.C., purchased the United States Telegraph, and backed Andrew Jackson for President. After Jackson was elected (1828), Green's newspaper became the administration journal and Green was admitted to Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet. He backed John C. Calhoun against Jackson in the nullification controversy, however, and thereafter he increasingly defended the South on the issues of slavery and the tariff. He left (1836) the Telegraph, and—having staunchly supported the Harrison-Tyler ticket in 1840—served Tyler on diplomatic missions to England (1843) and to Texas and Mexico (1844-45). He started (1844) in New York City the Republic, a newspaper devoted to tariff reduction and sympathetic toward the South. He became increasingly involved in Southern industrial development and railroad building. He had secured charters and funds for a Southern Pacific railroad and was about to start construction when the Civil War began. During the war he operated various ironworks for the Confederacy.
Green, George, 1793-1841, English mathematician and physicist. He was largely self-taught until, in 1833, he entered Caius College, Cambridge. In addition to making a number of contributions to the calculus, Green was especially interested in the equilibrium of fluids and was the first to introduce the potential in its application to the theories of the magnetic and electric fields. He also studied light and sound. His papers were edited, with a memoir, by N. M. Ferrers (1871).
Green, Henry, pseud. of Henry Vincent Yorke, 1905-73, English novelist. Born to an aristocratic family, he was the longtime managing director of his family's industrial engineering business in London. His nine novels, with laconic titles such as Party Going (1939), Nothing (1950), and Doting (1952), are as brilliantly original as they are tantalizing and enigmatic. Viewing human failures and inadequacies in an essentially comic light, Green achieves his unique effects through techniques normally reserved for poetry, relying on allusion, symbolism, and imagery. His most representative works are Living (1929), Caught (1943), Loving (1945), and Concluding (1948). A number of Green's short stories were published posthumously in Surviving (1992).

See his memoir Pack My Bag (1952); J. Treglown, Romancing: The Life and Work of Henry Green (2001); study by R. S. Ryf (1967).

Green, Hetty, 1835-1916, American financier, b. Henrietta Howland Robinson, New Bedford, Mass. She inherited a large fortune from her father and invested it so shrewdly that she was considered the greatest woman financier in the world. Extremely miserly during her lifetime, the "Witch of Wall Street" left an estate valued at $100-200 million.

See biographies by B. Sparkes and S. T. Moore (1930) and C. Slack (2004); A. H. Lewis, The Day They Shook the Plum Tree (1963).

Green, Julian or Julien, 1900-1998, French writer, b. Paris, of American parentage. Except for the years from 1918 to 1922 and from 1940 to 1945, Green lived in France. His 18 novels, written in French, are somber psychological tales concerning vice and near-madness. Among the best known are The Closed Garden (1927, tr. 1928), The Dark Journey (1929, tr. 1929), Midnight (1936, tr. 1936), Moira (1950, tr. 1951), and L'Autre (1971, tr. 1973). Green's epic historical novel of the American South, The Distant Lands (1987; tr. 1991), was a French bestseller. His plays include Sud (1953), L'Ennemi (1954), and L'Ombre (1956). He was elected to the Académie Française in 1971.

See his autobiography (4 vol.; pub. in full 1984); Diary (1964), a partial translation of the journal that he began keeping in the 1920s; studies by G. S. Burne (1971) and S. Stokes, Jr. (1955, repr. 1972).

Green, Matthew, 1696-1737, English poet. His one important poem, The Spleen (1737), marked by its wit, was in praise of the contemplative life.
Green, Paul, 1894-1981, American dramatist, b. Lillington, N.C., grad. Univ. of North Carolina, 1921. He is known for his realistic plays depicting the lives of blacks and white tenant farmers. His first full-length play, In Abraham's Bosom (1926; Pulitzer Prize) was followed by such works as The Field God (1927), The House of Connelly (1931), Johnny Johnson (with music by Kurt Weill, 1936), and Native Son (with Richard Wright, 1941). Green also wrote short stories and novels. His essays on the theater were collected in The Hawthorn Tree (1943), Dramatic Heritage (1953), and Drama and the Weather (1958).

See his Five Plays of the South (1963); study by B. H. Clark (1974).

Green, Samuel, 1615-1702, early American printer. He established himself at Cambridge, Mass., in 1649, using a press owned by Henry Dunster, the first president of Harvard. Green succeeded Stephen Daye, who established the first printing plant in the colonies. The press that was sent to the colony in 1654 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England was given to Green. He used it to produce his most famous imprints, John Eliot's Indian tracts and the Indian Bible. His imprints number nearly 300, among them editions of the Bay Psalm Book and The Book of the General Lawes and Libertyes. Green continued in business until 1692, and was succeeded by his son Bartholomew Green (1666-1732), printer and publisher of the Boston News-Letter (1704-07 and 1711-32).
Green, Samuel Swett, 1837-1918, American librarian, b. Worcester, Mass. Green was librarian of the Worcester, Mass., Free Public Library (1871-1909) and was a member of the Free Public Library Commission of Massachusetts from its beginning in 1890. One of the founders of the American Library Association, he was its president in 1891 and president of the World's Congress of Librarians at Chicago in 1893. Green promoted direct librarian assistance to users of library facilities. His writings include The Public Library Movement in the United States, 1853-1893 (1913).

See biography by R. K. Shaw (1926).

Green, Theodore Francis, 1867-1966, American politician, b. Providence, R.I. After studying law at Harvard and in Europe, he was admitted to the bar (1892) and practiced in Providence. Active in Democratic party politics, he held minor offices before being elected (1933) governor of Rhode Island. Green was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1936 and served until his retirement in 1961 at the age of 93, the oldest Senator in history. From 1957 to 1959 he was chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

See biography by E. L. Levine (2 vol., 1963-71, repr. 1976).

Green, Thomas Hill, 1836-82, English idealist philosopher. Educated at Oxford, he was associated with the university all his life. He was professor of moral philosophy there from 1878 until his death. In his Introduction to Hume's Treatise on Human Nature (1874), Green struck a heavy blow at traditional British empiricism. Rejecting sensationalism, he argued that all reality lies in relations, that relations exist only for a thinking consciousness, and that therefore the world is constituted by mind. In his Prolegomena to Ethics (1883) Green submitted an ethics of self-determination, which he epitomized in the phrase "Rules are made for man and not man for rules." Self-determination is present when humanity is conscious of its own desires, and freedom occurs when people identify themselves with what they consider morally good. Green's ethics are believed to have influenced, among others, John Dewey and Alfred North Whitehead. Politically, Green was a liberal; he asserted that government must represent the general will and that when it fails to do so it should be changed. See his Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation (1895).

See M. Richter, The Politics of Conscience: T. H. Green and His Age (1983).

Green, William, 1872-1952, American labor leader, president of the American Federation of Labor (1924-1952), b. Coshocton, Ohio. He rose through the ranks of the United Mine Workers of America, of which organization he was (1912-24) secretary-treasurer. With backing from John L. Lewis, Green was elected president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) to succeed Samuel Gompers. He led the organization of skilled labor into craft unions and gradually built up AFL membership. After eight of the largest unions split away (1935) under the leadership of John L. Lewis and formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) to organize workers in industrial unions, Green led the AFL in the subsequent struggle with the CIO. He set forth his philosophy in Labor and Democracy (1939). Green was succeeded as president of the AFL by George Meany. See American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations.
or blue-green algae

Any of a large group of prokaryotic, mostly photosynthetic organisms. Though classified as bacteria, they resemble the eukaryotic algae in many ways, including some physical characteristics and ecological niches, and were at one time treated as algae. They contain certain pigments, which, with their chlorophyll, often give them a blue-green colour, though many species are actually green, brown, yellow, black, or red. They are common in soil and in both salt and fresh water, and they can grow over a wide range of temperatures, from Antarctic lakes under several metres of ice to Yellowstone National Park's hot springs in the U.S. Cyanobacteria are often among the first species to colonize bare rock and soil. Some are capable of nitrogen fixation; others contain pigments that enable them to produce free oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis. Under proper conditions (including pollution by nitrogen wastes) they can reproduce explosively, forming dense concentrations called blooms, usually coloured an opaque green. Cyanobacteria played a large role in raising the level of free oxygen in the atmosphere of early Earth.

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(born March 3, 1873, Coshocton, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1952, Coshocton) U.S. labour leader, president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He was a coal miner from age 16. He worked his way up through the union hierarchy and was elected president of the AFL in 1924, a post he kept until his death. The formation in 1935 of the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), headed by John L. Lewis, led to bitter public disputes between the two men, ending in the expulsion of the CIO from the AFL in 1936. Seealso AFL-CIO; labour union.

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orig. Henrietta Howland Robinson

Hetty Green, 1897

(born Nov. 21, 1834, New Bedford, Mass., U.S.—died July 3, 1916, New York, N.Y.) U.S. financier, reputedly the wealthiest American woman of her time. In 1865 her father and aunt both died, leaving her an estate valued at $10 million. By shrewd management she increased it to more than $100 million at her death.

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(born March 3, 1873, Coshocton, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1952, Coshocton) U.S. labour leader, president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He was a coal miner from age 16. He worked his way up through the union hierarchy and was elected president of the AFL in 1924, a post he kept until his death. The formation in 1935 of the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), headed by John L. Lewis, led to bitter public disputes between the two men, ending in the expulsion of the CIO from the AFL in 1936. Seealso AFL-CIO; labour union.

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orig. Henrietta Howland Robinson

Hetty Green, 1897

(born Nov. 21, 1834, New Bedford, Mass., U.S.—died July 3, 1916, New York, N.Y.) U.S. financier, reputedly the wealthiest American woman of her time. In 1865 her father and aunt both died, leaving her an estate valued at $10 million. By shrewd management she increased it to more than $100 million at her death.

Learn more about Green, Hetty with a free trial on Britannica.com.

River, western U.S. It flows from western Wyoming south into Utah, where it turns east to make a loop through the northwestern corner of Colorado. Turning south in Utah, it enters the Colorado River in Canyonlands National Park after a course of 730 mi (1,175 km). Originally known as the Spanish River, it was renamed in 1824, probably for its colour, derived in places from green soapstone banks along its course.

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Part of the Appalachian Mountains in the U.S. It extends for 250 mi (402 km) through the centre of Vermont and has a maximum width of 30 mi (50 km). Many peaks rise to more than 3,000 ft (900 m); the highest is Mount Mansfield at 4,393 ft (1,339 m). Known for their skiing facilities, the mountains are traversed by the Long Trail (part of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail). Green Mountains National Forest, which covers 214,000 acres (86,600 hectares), was established in 1932.

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City (pop., 2000: 102,313), northeastern Wisconsin, U.S. Located on the Fox River at Green Bay, an inlet of Lake Michigan, it was the site of French trading posts from 1634 until the War of 1812. The U.S. took possession when the army built Fort Howard there in 1816. With the decline of the fur trade and the opening of the Erie Canal, it developed as a lumbering and agricultural centre. A Great Lakes port of entry with heavy shipping, it has a large wholesale and distributing business. The city is famous for its professional football team, the Green Bay Packers, which it has supported since 1919. It is the site of a University of Wisconsin branch and a technical college.

Learn more about Green Bay with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Green is a color, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 520–570-nm. In the subtractive color system, it is not a primary color, but is created out of a mixture of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan; it is considered one of the additive primary colors. On the HSV color wheel, the complement of green is magenta; that is, a purple color corresponding to an equal mixture of red and blue light. On a color wheel based on traditional color theory (RYB), the complementary color to green is considered to be red.

The word green is closely related to the Old English verb growan, “to grow”. It is used to describe plants or the ocean. Sometimes it can also describe someone who is inexperienced, jealous, or sick. In America, green is a slang term for money, among other things. Several colloquialisms have derived from these meanings, such as “green around the gills”, a phrase used to describe a person who looks ill.

Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, which is colored green by its chromium content. Animals such as frogs, lizards, and other reptiles and amphibians, fish, insects, and birds, appear green because of a mixture of layers of blue and green coloring on their skin. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants photosynthesize. Many creatures have adapted to their green environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage.

Culturally, green has broad and sometimes contradictory meanings. In some cultures, green symbolizes hope and growth, while in others, it is associated with death, sickness, envy or the devil. The most common associations, however, are found in its ties to nature. For example, Islam venerates the color, as it expects paradise to be full of lush greenery. Green is also associated with regeneration, fertility and rebirth for its connections to nature. Recent political groups have taken on the color as symbol of environmental protection and social justice, and consider themselves part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties. This has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold green, or environmentally friendly, products.

Etymology and definitions

The word green comes from the Old English word grene, or, in its older form, groeni. This adjective is closely related to the Old English verb growan (“to grow’) and goes back into Western Germanic and Scandinavian languages. The word designates the color on the visible light spectrum situated between blue and yellow. It is often used to describe foliage and the sea, and has become a symbol of environmentalism. It also is combined with other color names to increase specificity, as in “blue-green”, or with objects, as in “emerald green”. Green is also used to describe jealousy and envy, as well as anyone young, inexperienced, or gullible (probably by analogy to unripe, i.e. unready or immature, fruit). Green is sometimes associated with nausea and sickness. Lastly, green can communicate safety to proceed, as in traffic lights. Overall, greens, along with blues and purples, are frequently described as “cool” colors, in contrast to red and yellow. Some languages have no word separating green from blue (see blue-green across cultures).

The word green is found in several colloquial phrases derived from these meanings: in golf, the region of grass around the hole is trimmed short and referred to as the putting green, or simply, the green. Someone who works well with plants is said to have a green thumb or green fingers, a physically-ill person is said to look green around the gills, and the word greenhorn refers to an inexperienced person. A company is greenwashing if they advertise positive environmental practices to cover up environmental destruction. Green with envy highlights another emotional association, which William Shakespeare had first described as the "green-eyed monster" in Othello and The Merchant of Venice.

In areas that use the U.S. Dollar as currency, green carries a connotation of money, wealth, and capitalism, because green is the color of United States banknotes, giving rise to the slang term greenback for cash. One of the more notable uses of this meaning is found in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In this story is the Emerald City, where everyone wears tinted glasses which make everything look green. According to the populist interpretation of the story, the city’s color is used by the author, L. Frank Baum, to illustrate the financial system of America in his day, as he lived in a time when America was debating the use of paper money versus gold.

In science

Color vision and colorimetry

Human eyes have color receptors known as cone cells, of which there are three types. In some cases, one is missing or faulty, which can cause color blindness, including the common inability to distinguish red and yellow from green, known as deuteranopia or red–green color blindness. Green is restful to the eye. Studies show that a green environment can reduce fatigue.

The perception of green is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 520–570 nm. The sensitivity of the dark-adapted human eye is greatest at about 507 nm, a blue-green color, while the light-adapted eye is most sensitive about 555 nm, a slightly yellowish green; these are the peak locations of the rod and cone (scotopic and photopic, respectively) luminosity functions.

Green is considered one of the additive primary colors, along with red and blue. Additive combination of primary colors can produce most colors. In subtractive color mixtures, green is created by mixing yellow and blue pigments or dyes. On the HSV color wheel, the complement of green is magenta; that is, a color corresponding to an equal mixture of red and blue light (one of the purples). On a traditional color wheel, based on subtractive color, the complementary color to green is considered to be red.

In minerals and chemistry

Many minerals provide pigments which have been used in green paints and dyes over the centuries. Pigments, in this case, are minerals which reflect the color green, rather that emitting it through luminescent or phosphorescent qualities. The large number of green pigments makes it impossible to mention them all. Among the more famous green minerals, however is the emerald, which is colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3), is called chrome green, also called viridian or institutional green when used as a pigment. For many years, the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Naturally, many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. More recent studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar. Copper is also the source of the green color in malachite pigments, chemically known as basic copper(II) carbonate. Early painters would also use copper in the form of verdigris mixed with wax and turpentine to create green pigmentation in paints. Mixtures of oxidized cobalt and zinc were also used to create green paints as early as the 18th century. A more complete list of green minerals and pigments can be seen here

There is no natural source for green food colorings which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Chlorophyll, the E numbers E140 and E141, is the most common green chemical found in nature, and only allowed in certain medicines and cosmetic materials. Quinoline Yellow (E104) is a commonly used coloring in the United Kingdom but is banned in Australia, Japan, Norway and the United States. Green S (E142) is prohibited in many countries, for it is known to cause hyperactivity, asthma, urticaria, and insomnia.

To create green sparks, fireworks use barium salts, such as barium chlorate, barium nitrate crystals, or barium chloride, also used for green fireplace logs. Copper salts typically burn blue, but cupric chloride (also known as "campfire blue") can also produce green flames. Green pyrotechnic flares can use a mix ratio 75:25 of boron and potassium nitrate. Smoke can be turned green by a mixture: solvent yellow 33, solvent green 3, lactose, magnesium carbonate plus sodium carbonate added to potassium chlorate.

In biology

Green is common in nature, especially in plants. Many plants are green mainly because of a complex chemical known as chlorophyll which is involved in photosynthesis. Some animals are green: these include some frogs, toads, some turtles, some lizards and amphibians, some snakes, some birds such as parrots, caterpillars and some insects such as praying mantis. Green algae and green plankton are important food sources at the bottom of the food chain. Most fish, reptiles, amphibians, and birds appear green because of a reflection of blue light coming through an over-layer of yellow pigment. Perception of color can also be effected by the environment surrounding. For example, broadleaf forests typically have a yellow-green light about them as the trees filter the light. Turacoverdin is one chemical which can cause a green hue in birds, especially. Invertebrates, such as insects or mollusks, often display green colors because of Porphyrin pigments, sometimes caused by diet. This can causes their feces to look green as well. Other chemicals which generally contribute to greenness among organisms are flavins (lychochromes) and hemanovadin. Animals typically use the color green as camouflage, blending in with the chlorophyll green of the surrounding environment. Humans have imitated this by wearing green clothing as a camouflage in military and other fields. Substances that may impart a greenish hue to one's skin include biliverdin, the green pigment in bile, and ceruloplasmin, a protein that carries copper ions in chelation.

Green in culture

Western

In many folklores and literatures, green has traditionally been used to symbolize nature and its embodied attributes, namely those of life, fertility, and rebirth. Green was symbolic of resurrection and immortality in Ancient Egypt; the god Osiris was depicted as green-skinned. Stories of the medieval period further portray it as representing love and the base, natural desires of man. Green is also known to have signified witchcraft, devilry and evil for its association with faeries and spirits of early English folklore. It also had an association with decay and toxicity. Actor Bela Lugosi wore green-hued makeup for the role of Dracula in the 1927-28 Broadway stage production. The color, when combined with gold, is seen as representing the fading away of youth. In the Celtic tradition, green was avoided in clothing for its superstitious association with misfortune and death. Green is thought to be an unlucky color in British and British-derived cultures, where green cars, wedding dresses, and theater costumes are all the objects of superstition. In high schools in the United States during the 1960s, it was widely believed that if someone wore green on Thursdays, it meant that they were homosexual. Spider-Man villains were often colored green to represent a contrast to the hero's red.

Eastern

In some Asian cultures the color green is often used as a symbol of sickness and/or nausea; however, in China, green is associated with the east, with sunrise, and with life and growth. Many Asian languages have no word distinguishing blue from green, though recently published dictionaries do make the distinction. (เขียว) besides meaning Green also means rank and smelly and other unpleasant associations. In Ancient China, green was the symbol of East and Wood, one of the main five colors. The Chinese term for cuckold is "to wear a green hat. It is because of this that it is extremely rare to see any Chinese man wearing a green hat.

Nationality and politics

Green has become the symbolic color of environmentalism, chosen for its association with nature, health, and growth. The Green Party is any of various political parties emphasizing ecology, grassroots democracy, nonviolence, and social justice. Green Parties, now active in over one hundred countries, are more broadly included in the green movement, and most are members of the Global Green Network.

The association of green with advocates of the environment has extended to other circles as well, as is the case with Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople, who is often referred to as the “Green Patriarch” because the new environmental focus which he brought about within the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Several countries use green on their flags for symbolic or cultural reasons. Green, for example is one of the three colors (along with red and black, or red and gold)) of Pan-Africanism. Several African countries thus use the color on their flags, including South Africa, Ghana, Senegal, Mali, Ethiopia, Togo, Guinea, Benin, and Zimbabwe. The Pan-African colors are borrowed from the Ethiopian flag, one of the oldest independent African countries. Green in these cases represents the natural richness of Africa.

Many flags of the Islamic world are green, as the color is considered sacred in Islam. The flag of Libya consists of a simple green field with no other characteristics. It is the only national flag in the world with just one color and no design, insignia, or other details.

Other countries use flags for reasons of heraldry, or to represent lush national vegetation. In heraldry, green is called vert (French for "green"). Fourteenth century documents describe vert as a symbol of "jolliness and youth, but also of beauty and shame" as well as of death. Vert is used for the flags of Wales and Hungary, and is the basis for the Brazilian flag as well. Other countries using green in their flags use it to represent their country's lush vegetation, as in the flag of Jamaica, and hope in the future, as in the flag of Nigeria.

Green is one of the bottom of the three bands on the Flag of India. The green stands for fertility and prosperity, though initially before it came into being, it stood for Islam, the second-most predominant religion in India.

Green is a symbol of Ireland, which is often referred to as the “Emerald Isle”. The color is particularly identified with the republican and nationalist traditions in modern times. It is used this way on the flag of the Republic of Ireland, in balance with white and the Protestant orange. Green is a strong trend in the Irish holiday St. Patrick’s Day.

Religion and philosophy

Green is considered the traditional color of Islam, likewise because of its association with nature. This is for several reasons. First, Muhammad is reliably quoted in a hadith as saying that “water, greenery, and a beautiful face” were three universally good things. In the Qur'an, sura Al-Insan, believers in God in Paradise wear fine green silk. Also, Al-Khidr (“The Green One”), is a Qur’anic figure who met and traveled with Moses. The flag of Hamas, as well as the flag of Iran, is green, symbolizing their Islamist ideology.

In the metaphysics of the "New Age Prophetess", Alice Bailey, in her system called the Seven Rays which classifies humans into seven different metaphysical psychological types, the "third ray" of "creative intelligence" is represented by the color green. People who have this metaphysical psychological type are said to be "on the Green Ray". In Hinduism, Green is used to symbolically represent the fourth, heart chakra (Anahata). Psychics who claim to be able to observe the aura with their third eye report that someone with a green aura is typically someone who is in an occupation related to health, such as a physician or nurse, as well as people who are lovers of nature and the outdoors.

Also, Roman Catholic and more traditional Protestant clergy wear green vestments at liturgical celebrations during Ordinary Time. In the Eastern Catholic Church, green is the color of Pentecost. Green is one of the Christmas colors as well, possibly dating back to pre-Christian times, when evergreens were worshipped for their ability to maintain their color through the winter season. Romans used green holly and evergreen as decorations for their winter solstice celebration called Saturnalia, which eventually evolved into a Christmas celebration.

See also

Notes and references

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