Gran: see Esztergom, Hungary.
Spanish Chaco or El Chaco

Lowland alluvial plain, south-central South America. An arid lowland, it is bounded by the Andes Mountains to the west and the Paraguay and Paraná rivers to the east; its northern and southern margins, generally considered to be a marshy area in Bolivia and the Salado River in Argentina, respectively, are less well defined. Its area is about 280,000 sq mi (725,000 sq km). The region's heartland, in the fork of the Paraguay and Pilcomayo rivers, was fought over by Bolivia and Paraguay in the Chaco War (1932–35). By a 1938 treaty a larger eastern part went to Paraguay and a smaller western part to Bolivia. Chaco's wildlife is abundant, and there are at least 60 known species of snakes. Cattle grazing is a major economic activity. The area remains isolated and is only sparsely populated.

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is a municipality in the county of Oppland, Norway.

Gran was established as a municipality January 1, 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). Brandbu was separated from Gran January 1, 1897 - but it was again merged with Gran January 1, 1962.


The municipality (originally the parish) is named after a the farm Gran (Norse Grön), since the first church was built there. The name is identical with the word grön 'spruce'.


Gran's coat-of-arms is from 1987. It is meant to represent the spires of the medieval Sister Churches which are located in the municipality.


Gran is part of Hadeland. It is bordered to the north by Søndre Land and Vestre Toten, to the east by Hurdal and Nannestad, to the south by Lunner and Jevnaker, and to the west by Ringerike. Areas of concentrated population include Moen, Brandbu, Gran and Jaren.


The economy of the municipality was in 2002 of NOK 24,098 in free income per inhabitant, and net debt per inhabitant was NOK 41,835 (also municipal economy, not private). Health care spendings represents about 1/3 of the total budget, which is 7.5 per cent higher than the average for Norway.


Granavollen is the site of the Sister Churches (Søsterkirkene), two stone churches from the middle ages. They are constructed side by side. The smallest and oldest is the Mariakirke, a single nave church built in the Romanesque style. The neighbouring Nikolaikirke is a three-aisled basilica, probably inspired by the construction of the Halvardskirke in Oslo. According to local folklore, the churches were built by two sisters. These two detested each other so much they could not share the same church. A more likely explanation however, is that the Mariakirke was built for the local congregation, while the Nikolaikirke was the main church for Hadeland parish.

At Tingelstad there is another medieval stone church. It is dated to the 12th century and is called Tingelstad old church. This church has survived even though it has not been in regular use for some 140 years. This is also the location of Hadeland Folkemuseum with a collection of buildings from the area, farm implements as well as a grave mound from the Viking Age and a copy of the 11th century Dynna stone. It also holds an archive of photographs and documents.

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