Definitions

# Graham

[grey-uhm, gram]
Wallas, Graham, 1858-1932, English political scientist and psychologist. He joined (1886) the Fabian Society and was the author of one of the Fabian Essays. In 1914, Wallas became professor of political science at the Univ. of London. In his lectures and writings he studied the psychological factors in politics and advocated government by specially trained persons. Wallas wrote a biography of Francis Place (1898), Human Nature in Politics (1908), The Great Society (1914), Our Social Heritage (1921), and The Art of Thought (1926).

See study by M. J. Wiener (1971).

Greene, Graham (Henry Graham Greene), 1904-91, English novelist and playwright. Although most of his works combine elements of the detective story, the spy thriller, and the psychological drama, his novels are essentially parables of the damned. Greene's heroes realize their sins and achieve salvation only through great pain and soul-searching agony. A Roman Catholic convert (1926), he was intensely concerned with the moral problems of humans in relation to God. Some of his 26 novels have been ranked as thrillers, and Greene himself called such works as Stamboul Train (1932; U.S. title, Orient Express) and The Ministry of Fear (1943) "entertainments" to distinguish them from his more serious efforts. His major works, which include Brighton Rock (1938), The Power and the Glory (1940), The Heart of the Matter (1948), and The End of the Affair (1951), mark him as a novelist of high distinction.

Greene was a superb journalist, a sometime British spy, and a world traveler, often courting danger in various international wars and revolutions and participating in local high and low life in dozens of famous and obscure corners of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Many of his novels are set in locations with which he had personal experience, sites often of topical journalistic interest: The Quiet American (1955) a prescient account of early American involvement in Vietnam; Our Man in Havana (1958), set in Cuba; A Burnt-Out Case (1961), in the Belgian Congo just before its independence; The Comedians (1966), in François Duvalier's Haiti; and The Captain and the Enemy (1980), in Panama. His fine sense of comedy is displayed in the short-story collection May We Borrow Your Husband? (1967) and the novel Travels with My Aunt (1969). Greene also wrote several plays, including The Living Room (1953) and The Potting Shed (1957), both thinly disguised religious dramas, and The Complaisant Lover (1959), a witty and intelligent play about marriage and infidelity. He also is noted for his essays, travel books, film criticism, and film scripts, including the mystery melodrama The Third Man (1950).

See his autobiographies (1971, 1980) and his posthumously published A World of My Own: A Dream Diary (1995); S. Hazzard, Greene on Capri: A Memoir (2000); R. Greene, ed., Graham Greene: A Life in Letters (2008); biographies by M. Shelden (1994) and N. Sherry (3 vol., 1989-2004); studies by H. J. Donaghy (1983), A. A. De Vitis (1986), and J. Meyers, ed. (1990).

Graham, Billy (William Franklin Graham), 1918-, American evangelist, b. Charlotte, N.C., grad. Wheaton College (B.A., 1943). Graham was ordained a minister in the Southern Baptist Church (1939), was the pastor of a Chicago church (his first and last pastorate), and in 1944 became an evangelist for the American Youth for Christ movement. In 1949 he received national attention for an extended evangelical campaign in Los Angeles. He subsequently made preaching tours (for which he popularized the term "crusade") in most major U.S. cities and in Europe, Africa, South America, Asia, Australia, and Russia. His reputation made him a favored guest among politicians and presidents. Graham, who in his preaching has consistently stressed personal conversion and scriptural authority, is identified with the conservative Protestant movement known as neo-evangelicalism (see fundamentalism) and is to a large degree responsible for establishing it as part of the American mainstream. He is also the co-founder of the journal Christianity Today. The Billy Graham Evangelical Association, founded in the early 1950s, publishes Decision magazine and produces programs for radio, television, and screen. Graham retired as head of the association in 2000; Franklin Graham, his son, succeeded him as its leader. Billy Graham held his final crusade in 2004.

See his autobiography, Just as I Am (1997); biographies by W. C. McLaughlin (1960), M. Frady (1979), and W. Martin (1991); study by S. P. Miller (2009).

Graham, George, 1674?-1751, English instrument maker. A clockmaker by trade, Graham designed clocks and watches that earned him membership in the Royal Society and were still manufactured into the present century. In 1725 he built a very accurate 8-ft (2.4-m) quadrant for the royal astronomer, Edmund Halley, at Greenwich; it was widely copied. His most important invention remains the micrometer screw, which enabled him to build zenith sections and calipers of unprecedented precision. Graham is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Graham, Katharine Meyer, 1917-2001, American publisher, b. New York City, grad. Univ. of Chicago (1938). She first worked as a copy girl at the Washington Post, which was owned by her father, Eugene Meyer; after college, she joined the San Francisco News. After she returned to the Post, she met and married (1940) Philip Graham, who joined the paper and later became publisher; she soon became a well-known Washington socialite. After her husband's suicide (1963), she took over The Washington Post Company and over the years greatly expanded it; the organization now includes television stations and cable systems among its holdings. As publisher (1969-79) of the Post, she transformed the newspaper, which had improved during her husband's tenure but was still relatively mediocre, into one of the country's finest and most influential journals. Concurrently, she transformed herself into one of Washington's most powerful figures. Graham became particularly well known for withstanding political pressure from the Nixon administration when she approved the printing of the Pentagon Papers and when she supported the Post's active pursuit of the Watergate story, for which it won a 1973 Pulitzer Prize. Her son, Donald E. Graham, succeeded her as publisher in 1979 and as chair of the board in 1993.

See her autobiography, Personal History (1997; Pulitzer Prize); H. Bray, Pillars of the Post (1980); C. M. Roberts, In the Shadow of Power (1989); C. Felsenthal, Power, Privilege, and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story (1993).

Graham, Martha, 1894-1991, American dancer, choreographer, and teacher, b. Pittsburgh. Her family moved from Allegheny, Pa., to Santa Barbara, Calif., when she was 14. After 1916, Graham attended the Denishawn School, Los Angeles; in 1920 she made her debut in Ted Shawn's Xochitl, which was created for her. She left the Denishawn company in 1923 to dance in musical revues and to make her independent debut (1926). Graham first appeared with her own group of dancers in 1929, began her tours after 1939, and became, according to many critics, the seminal figure in modern dance. Her choreography, which requires great discipline and flexibility to perform, is highly individual, stark, and angular. Her dances became more explosive and less abstract in the late 1930s and early 1940s, as she achieved her mature style.

Graham's dances often draw upon historical and mythological subjects. After World War II, she created works based increasingly on Freudian and Jungian themes and centered on the female figure. Her works include Primitive Mysteries (1931), Letter to the World (1940), Deaths and Entrances (1943), Appalachian Spring (1944), Cave of the Heart (1946), Seraphic Dialogue (1955), Phaedra (1962), and Archaic Hours (1969), created the year she retired from dancing. Because so many of her students themselves became choreographers and leaders of companies, her influence on modern dance is especially widespread. Her own troupe, the oldest dance company in the United States, faced problems a decade after her death. Internecine struggles caused the closure (2000-2002) of the Martha Graham Dance Center, but a legal decision in late 2002 allowed the company to regroup, and they began to perform her dances again in early 2003.

See her Notebooks (1973) and her autobiography, Blood Memory (1991); biography by D. McDonagh (1973); E. Stodelle, Deep Song (1984); A. de Mille, Martha: The Life and Work of Martha Graham (1991); R. Tracy, ed., Goddess: Martha Graham's Dancers Remember (1996).

Graham, Otto Everett, Jr.,1921-2003, American football player and coach, b. Waukegan, Ill. He was an All-American football and basketball player at Northwestern Univ. before he joined the Cleveland Browns in 1946 after serving in the Navy (1944-5) and briefly playing professional basketball. Playing at quarterback, Graham led the Browns to ten championship games and seven titles (1946-9 in the All-America Football Conference; 1950 and 1954-5 in the National Football League. An outstanding passer, he was a four-time NFL All-Pro player before he retired in 1955. He coached at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy (1959-66), where he was also athletic director (1959-66, 1970-85), and for the Washington Redskins (1966-8).
Graham, Philip Leslie, 1915-63, American publisher, b. S.Dak. After editing the Harvard Law Review, he served as a law clerk to his mentor, Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter. In 1940 he married Katharine Meyer Graham, whose father, Eugene Meyer, owned the Washington Post. Meyer named him associate publisher of the Post in 1946, and publisher six months later. After Graham took charge, he gave the Post a new and more politically assertive direction and was considered by many to be an influential journalist. In 1961, the Post acquired Newsweek magazine. After the severely depressed Graham committed suicide in 1963, Katharine Graham took over the company.

See H. Bray, Pillars of the Post (1980); C. M. Roberts, In the Shadow of Power (1989).

Graham, Sylvester, 1794-1851, American reformer and Presbyterian minister, b. West Suffield, Conn. He advocated a vegetable diet as a cure for intemperance and the use of coarsely ground whole-wheat flour. Graham flour was named for him.
Graham, Thomas, 1805-69, Scottish chemist, best known for research in diffusion in both gases and liquids that led to his formulation of Graham's law. His discovery that certain substances (e.g., glue, gelatin, starch) pass through a membrane more slowly than others (inorganic salts, e.g., common salt, or sodium chloride) led him to draw a distinction between the two groups, calling the former (the slower) colloids and the latter crystalloids. In this connection he discovered dialysis. His work was the earliest in colloidal chemistry. His investigation of phosphoric acid led to the present chemical concept of polybasic acids.
Sutherland, Graham, 1903-80, English painter. Sutherland began his career as a painter at 35 and gained international acclaim with his paintings of war devastation. Among his major religious works are a tapestry for Coventry Cathedral and a series of paintings entitled Thorns. Realistically painted in sharp, cruel forms, they are symbolic of the Passion.

See studies by E. Sackville-West (1955) and D. Cooper (1962).

(born Aug. 24, 1903, London, Eng.—died Feb. 17, 1980, London) British painter. After studying art in London, he taught and practiced printmaking (1926–40) at the Chelsea School of Art. His early work was characterized by an exacting representationalism that evolved into Surrealism. He turned primarily to painting circa 1935 and served as official war artist 1940–45; his war paintings are an evocative record of desolation. His “thorn period” began with his Crucifixion (1946), considered to be one of the most important religious paintings of the 20th century. In such late works he incorporated anthropomorphic insect and plant forms, particularly thorns, which he transformed into powerful, frightening totemic images. Sutherland was known, too, for his expressionistic, penetrating portraits. He also designed the enormous tapestry (circa 1955–61) for the new Coventry Cathedral.

(born 1612—died May 21, 1650, Edinburgh, Scot.) Scottish general in the English Civil Wars. He served in the Covenanter army that invaded northern England (1640) but remained a royalist. Appointed lieutenant-general by Charles I (1644), he led his royalist army of Highlanders and Irish to victories in major battles in Scotland. After Charles's defeat in 1645, Montrose fled to the European continent. He returned to Scotland in 1650 with 1,200 men, but he was defeated, captured, and hanged.

Learn more about Montrose, James Graham, 5th earl and 1st marquess of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 11, 1894, Allegheny county, Penn., U.S.—died April 1, 1991, New York, N.Y.) U.S. dancer, teacher, choreographer, and foremost exponent of modern dance. She studied from 1916 with Ted Shawn at the Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts, then left in 1923 for New York, where she founded her own school in 1927 and a performing company in 1929. She choreographed more than 160 works, creating unique “dance plays” and using a variety of themes to express emotion and conflict. Many are based on American themes, including Appalachian Spring (1944); other works include Primitive Mysteries (1931), El Penitente (1940), Letter to the World (1940), Cave of the Heart (1946), Clytemnestra (1958), Phaedra (1962), and Frescoes (1978). She collaborated for many years with Louis Horst, her musical director, and with Isamu Noguchi, who designed many of her sets. She retired from dancing in 1970 but continued to teach and choreograph. Her technique became the first significant alternative to classical ballet, and her influence extended worldwide through her choreography and her students.

(born 1612—died May 21, 1650, Edinburgh, Scot.) Scottish general in the English Civil Wars. He served in the Covenanter army that invaded northern England (1640) but remained a royalist. Appointed lieutenant-general by Charles I (1644), he led his royalist army of Highlanders and Irish to victories in major battles in Scotland. After Charles's defeat in 1645, Montrose fled to the European continent. He returned to Scotland in 1650 with 1,200 men, but he was defeated, captured, and hanged.

Learn more about Montrose, James Graham, 5th earl and 1st marquess of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 2, 1904, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died April 3, 1991, Vevey, Switz.) British author. After studying at the University of Oxford, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1926. Beginning circa 1930 he worked principally as a freelance journalist for several decades, during which he traveled widely. Stamboul Train (1932; also h1d Orient Express; film, 1934) was the first of his “entertainments,” thrillers with considerable moral complexity and depth; others included A Gun for Sale (1936; also h1d This Gun for Hire; film, 1942), The Confidential Agent (1939; film, 1945), and The Third Man (1949; film, 1949). His finest novels—Brighton Rock (1938; film, 1948), The Power and the Glory (1940; film, 1962), The Heart of the Matter (1948; film, 1954), and The End of the Affair (1951; film, 1999)—all have distinctly religious themes. Several of his novels set in “third-world” nations on the brink of political upheaval were also adapted as films.

(born Dec. 6, 1921, Waukegan, Ill., U.S.—died Dec. 17, 2003, Sarasota, Fla.) U.S. gridiron football player and coach. He was a star tailback at Northwestern University, but he is best remembered as quarterback of the Cleveland Browns during a 10-year period (1946–55) in which they won 105 games, lost 17, and tied 5 in regular season play and won 7 of 10 championship games. Graham's career average yardage per pass (8.63) was still an NFL record at the beginning of the 21st century. His coaching career was mainly with the U.S. Coast Guard Academy (1959–66) and the Washington Redskins (1966–68). He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1965.

(born May 11, 1894, Allegheny county, Penn., U.S.—died April 1, 1991, New York, N.Y.) U.S. dancer, teacher, choreographer, and foremost exponent of modern dance. She studied from 1916 with Ted Shawn at the Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts, then left in 1923 for New York, where she founded her own school in 1927 and a performing company in 1929. She choreographed more than 160 works, creating unique “dance plays” and using a variety of themes to express emotion and conflict. Many are based on American themes, including Appalachian Spring (1944); other works include Primitive Mysteries (1931), El Penitente (1940), Letter to the World (1940), Cave of the Heart (1946), Clytemnestra (1958), Phaedra (1962), and Frescoes (1978). She collaborated for many years with Louis Horst, her musical director, and with Isamu Noguchi, who designed many of her sets. She retired from dancing in 1970 but continued to teach and choreograph. Her technique became the first significant alternative to classical ballet, and her influence extended worldwide through her choreography and her students.

in full William Franklin Graham, Jr.

(born Nov. 7, 1918, Charlotte, N.C., U.S.) U.S. Christian evangelist. The son of a dairy farmer, he underwent a conversion experience at age 16 during a revival. After attending Bob Jones College and the Florida Bible Institute, he was ordained a Southern Baptist clergyman in 1940. He later earned a degree in anthropology from Wheaton College. He won numerous converts with his tent revivals and radio broadcasts, and by 1950 he had become fundamentalism's leading spokesman. He led a series of widely televised international revival crusades through the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association in Minneapolis, Minn., and he enjoyed close associations with a series of U.S. presidents. Graham and his wife, Ruth, were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 1996.

(born Aug. 24, 1903, London, Eng.—died Feb. 17, 1980, London) British painter. After studying art in London, he taught and practiced printmaking (1926–40) at the Chelsea School of Art. His early work was characterized by an exacting representationalism that evolved into Surrealism. He turned primarily to painting circa 1935 and served as official war artist 1940–45; his war paintings are an evocative record of desolation. His “thorn period” began with his Crucifixion (1946), considered to be one of the most important religious paintings of the 20th century. In such late works he incorporated anthropomorphic insect and plant forms, particularly thorns, which he transformed into powerful, frightening totemic images. Sutherland was known, too, for his expressionistic, penetrating portraits. He also designed the enormous tapestry (circa 1955–61) for the new Coventry Cathedral.

in full William Franklin Graham, Jr.

(born Nov. 7, 1918, Charlotte, N.C., U.S.) U.S. Christian evangelist. The son of a dairy farmer, he underwent a conversion experience at age 16 during a revival. After attending Bob Jones College and the Florida Bible Institute, he was ordained a Southern Baptist clergyman in 1940. He later earned a degree in anthropology from Wheaton College. He won numerous converts with his tent revivals and radio broadcasts, and by 1950 he had become fundamentalism's leading spokesman. He led a series of widely televised international revival crusades through the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association in Minneapolis, Minn., and he enjoyed close associations with a series of U.S. presidents. Graham and his wife, Ruth, were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 1996.

Alexander Graham Bell.

(born March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 2, 1922, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Can.) Scottish-born U.S. audiologist and inventor. He moved to the U.S. in 1871 to teach the visible-speech system developed by his father, Alexander Melville Bell (1819–1905). He opened his own school in Boston for training teachers of the deaf (1872) and was influential in disseminating these methods. In 1876 he became the first person to transmit intelligible words through electric wire (“Watson, come here, I want you,” spoken to his assistant Thomas Watson). He patented the telephone the same year, and in 1877 he cofounded Bell Telephone Co. With the proceeds from France's Volta Prize, he founded Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 1880. His experiments there led to the invention of the photophone (which transmitted speech by light rays), the audiometer (which measured acuteness of hearing), the Graphophone (an early practical sound recorder), and working wax recording media, both flat and cylindrical, for the Graphophone. He was chiefly responsible for founding the journal Science, founded the American Association to Promote Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (1890), and continued his significant research on deafness throughout his life.

Alexander Graham Bell.

(born March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 2, 1922, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Can.) Scottish-born U.S. audiologist and inventor. He moved to the U.S. in 1871 to teach the visible-speech system developed by his father, Alexander Melville Bell (1819–1905). He opened his own school in Boston for training teachers of the deaf (1872) and was influential in disseminating these methods. In 1876 he became the first person to transmit intelligible words through electric wire (“Watson, come here, I want you,” spoken to his assistant Thomas Watson). He patented the telephone the same year, and in 1877 he cofounded Bell Telephone Co. With the proceeds from France's Volta Prize, he founded Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 1880. His experiments there led to the invention of the photophone (which transmitted speech by light rays), the audiometer (which measured acuteness of hearing), the Graphophone (an early practical sound recorder), and working wax recording media, both flat and cylindrical, for the Graphophone. He was chiefly responsible for founding the journal Science, founded the American Association to Promote Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (1890), and continued his significant research on deafness throughout his life.

Graham's law, also known as Graham's law of effusion, was formulated by Scottish physical chemist, Thomas Graham. Graham found experimentally that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles. This formula can be written as:

$\left\{mbox\left\{Rate\right\}_1 over mbox\left\{Rate\right\}_2\right\}=sqrt\left\{M_2 over M_1\right\}$

where:

Rate1 is the rate of effusion of the first gas.
Rate2 is the rate of effusion for the second gas.
M1 is the molar mass of gas 1
M2 is the molar mass of gas 2.

Graham's law states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. Thus, if the molecular weight of one gas is four times that of another, it would diffuse through a porous plug or escape through a small pinhole in a vessel at half the rate of the other. A complete theoretical explanation of Graham's law was provided years later by the kinetic theory of gases. Graham's law provides a basis for separating isotopes by diffusion — a method that came to play a crucial role in the development of the atomic bomb.

Graham's law is most accurate for molecular effusion which involves the movement of one gas at a time through a hole. It is only approximate for diffusion of one gas in another or in air, as these processes involve the movement of more than one gas.

## History

Graham's research on the diffusion of gases was triggered by his reading about the observation of German chemist Johann Döbereiner that hydrogen gas diffused out of a small crack in a glass bottle faster than the surrounding air diffused in to replace it. Graham measured the rate of diffusion of gases through plaster plugs, through very fine tubes, and through small orifices. In this way he slowed down the process so that it could be studied quantitatively. He first stated the law as we know it today in 1831. Graham went on to study the diffusion of substances in solution and in the process made the discovery that some apparent solutions actually are suspensions of particles too large to pass through a parchment filter. He termed these materials colloids, a term that has come to denote an important class of finely divided materials.

At the time Graham did his work the concept of molecular weight was being established, in large part through measurements of gases. Italian physicist Amadeo Avogadro had suggested in 1811 that equal volumes of different gases contain equal numbers of molecules. Thus, the relative molecular weights of two gases are equal to the ratio of weights of equal volumes of the gases. Avogadro's insight together with other studies of gas behavior provided a basis for theoretical work by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell who was trying to explain the properties of gases as collections of small particles moving through largely empty space.

Perhaps the greatest success of the kinetic theory of gases, as it came to be called, was the discovery that for gases, the temperature as measured on the Kelvin (absolute) temperature scale is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules, where the kinetic energy of any object is equal to one-half its mass times the square of its velocity. Thus, to have equal kinetic energies, the velocities of two different molecules would have to be in inverse proportion to the square roots of their masses. Since the rate of diffusion is determined by the average molecular velocity, Graham's law for diffusion could be understood in terms of the molecular kinetic energies being equal at the same temperature.

## Example

Let gas 1 be H2 and gas 2 be O2.

$\left\{mbox\left\{Rate H\right\}_2 over mbox\left\{Rate O\right\}_2\right\}=\left\{sqrt\left\{32\right\} over sqrt\left\{2\right\}\right\}=\left\{sqrt\left\{16\right\} over sqrt\left\{1\right\}\right\}= frac\left\{4\right\}\left\{ 1\right\}$

Therefore, hydrogen molecules effuse four times as fast as those of oxygen.

Graham's Law can also be used to find the approximate molecular weight of a gas if one gas is a known species, and if there is a specific ratio between the rates of two gases (such as in the previous example). The equation can be solved for either one of the molecular weights provided the subscripts are consistent.

$\left\{M_2\right\}=\left\{M_1 mbox\left\{Rate\right\}_1^2 over mbox\left\{Rate\right\}_2^2\right\}$

Graham's law was the basis for separating 235U from 238U found in natural uraninite (uranium ore). The United States government built a gaseous diffusion plant at the then phenomenal cost of \$100 million in Clinton, Tennessee. In this plant, uranium from uranium ore was first converted to uranium hexafluoride and then forced repeatedly to diffuse through porous barriers, each time becoming a little more enriched in the slightly lighter 235U isotope.