Grace

Grace

[greys]
Abbott, Grace, 1878-1939, American social worker, b. Grand Island, Nebr. She did notable work as director (1921-34) of the Child Labor Division of the U.S. Children's Bureau. The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938) is her most important publication. Her sister, Edith Abbott, 1876-1957, became dean of the School of Social Service Administration, Univ. of Chicago, in 1924. Her publications include Women in Industry (1910) and The Tenements of Chicago (1936).
Hartigan, Grace, 1922-2008, American painter, b. Newark, N.J. Hartigan moved to Manhattan in 1945 and began painting semiabstract canvases after her introduction to the works of the abstract expressionists (see abstract expressionism) in 1949. She integrated recognizably representational images including those from the history of art and from pop culture into her abstract compositions. Hartigan's works are characterized by intense colors, broad shapes executed with loose brushwork, and a strong, heavy line. She moved to Baltimore in the 1960s and taught painting at the Maryland Institute College of Art until 2007.

See R. S. Mattison, Grace Hartigan: A Painter's World (1990).

Hopper, Grace, 1906-92, American computer scientist, b. New York City as Grace Brewster Murray. She was educated at Vassar College and Yale (Ph.D., 1934). After teaching at Vassar (1931-1943), she joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, serving on active duty until 1946. Assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's computation project at Harvard, she worked on the Mark series of computers. At the conclusion of World War II she began her search for a means of making computer programs easier to write. Her answer was the compiler, a specialized program that translates instructions written in a programming language into the binary coding of machine language. In 1952 she unveiled the A-0 compiler, and Hopper began working on a compiler oriented to business tasks. In 1955 she introduced FLOW-MATIC, which became the prototype for the first commercially successful business-oriented programming language, COBOL. Hopper returned to active duty with the Navy in 1967, charged with leading the effort to combine various versions of COBOL into USA Standard COBOL. She retired in 1986 with the rank of rear admiral.

See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).

Paley, Grace, 1922-2007, American writer and social activist, b. the Bronx, N.Y., as Grace Goodside. In short stories mainly celebrating the lives of women, Paley paints the daily lives of working-class Jewish New Yorkers. Her language is at once realistic and heightened, with a superb command of Yiddish-inflected speech (and other dialects), and her vision of urban life is often wry, intensely political, and profoundly humane. She published four volumes of stories: The Litttle Disturbances of Man (1959), Enormous Changes at the Last Minute (1974, film 1983), Later the Same Day (1985), and Collected Stories (1994, repr. 2007). Her poems are collected in such volumes as Leaning Forward (1985), Begin Again (1992), and Fidelity (2008), and her essays in Just as I Thought (1998). On the left politically, she was a peace activist, a feminist, and a human rights advocate. Paley was New York's first official state author (1986-88) and, after moving (1990) to Vermont, was its poet laureate (2003-7).

See biography by J. Arcana (1993); G. Bach and B. H. Hall, ed., Conversations with Grace Paley (1997); studies by N. D. Isaacs (1990) and J. Taylor (1990).

grace, in Christian theology, the free favor of God toward humans, which is necessary for their salvation. A distinction is made between natural grace (e.g., the gift of life) and supernatural grace, by which God makes a person (born sinful because of original sin) capable of enjoying eternal life. In general, the term grace is restricted to supernatural grace, usually considered as the keystone of the whole Christian theological system.

Supernatural grace is usually defined as being actual or sanctifying. Actual grace turns the soul to God; sanctifying grace confirms and perpetuates the ends of this conversion and makes the soul habitually good. Most theologies (except in Calvinism), wishing to maintain humanity's freedom in addition to God's complete freedom in granting grace, distinguish prevenient grace, which frees a person and awakens him or her to God's call, from cooperating grace, by which God assists to salvation the free person who seeks it.

When God seems to confer on a person such actual grace that his or her conversion appears inevitable, the grace is said to be efficacious. The apparent difficulty of claiming that grace may be efficacious while a person is free was explained by St. Thomas Aquinas on the ground that it was a peculiar nature of this grace granted to some people that it should be ineluctable; it was this doctrine that Luis Molina and the Molinists disputed. Differing in effect from efficacious grace is merely sufficient grace, which, while sufficient to conversion, may be rejected by a person at will. Calvinism rejects merely sufficient grace, holding instead that grace is irresistible.

In every Christian theology God is considered to grant grace quite freely, since its gift is far greater than any person can merit. As to which persons are offered this grace, there is great difference. The generality hold that it is offered to people who place no obstacle in the way of salvation rather than to those who neglect what ways to grace they have been given; the Jansenists (see Jansen, Cornelis), however, believed that grace was not given outside the church, and the Calvinists hold that it is offered only to those predestined to election.

Sanctifying grace may be said to succeed justification as actual grace precedes it. The operation of sanctifying grace brings holiness to the individual soul. The indwelling of God in the soul and the soul's actual participation in God's nature (in an indefinable manner) are the perfections of sanctifying grace. As to the means, there is a serious cleavage in Christianity, notably in regard to sacramental grace. According to Roman Catholics and Orthodox, the grace accompanying a sacrament is ex opere operato, i.e., by God's ordinance the sacrament actually confers grace, the good disposition of the minister being unimportant and that of the recipient being not always a condition; Protestants hold that the sacraments are ex opere operantis, i.e., the faith of the recipient is all-important, and the sacrament is the sign, not the source of grace.

Certain Christian systems have developed quite different ideas of grace, and Pelagianism has its advocates in liberal 20th-century Protestantism. The great emphasis on grace is a distinction of Christianity. In recent years among orthodox theologians there has been a renewed interest in the theology of grace. Among traditional usages, they distinguish three forms of grace: God's communication of Himself to the Christian soul is grace; the favorable attitude of God toward the soul is grace; the ontological modification of Christian life by God's favor is grace.

Grace, William Russell, 1832-1904, American financier, b. Queenstown, Ireland. He was in business in England and Peru before establishing (1865) W. R. Grace & Company in New York City. After Peru's defeat by Chile, Grace was among those who underwrote the Peruvian national debt, in return for extensive business concessions. The Grace firm established branches in many Latin American countries after 1895 and developed steamship operations. In 1880, Grace became the first Roman Catholic mayor of New York City and in two reform administrations opposed Tammany.

See biography by his grandson, J. P. Grace (1953).

Kelly, Grace: see Grace, princess consort of Monaco.

In Christian theology, the unmerited gift of divine favour, which brings about the salvation of a sinner. The concept of grace has given rise to theological debate over the nature of human depravity and the extent to which individuals may contribute to their own salvation through free will. Though in principle the ideas of merit and grace are mutually exclusive, the question of whether grace may be given as a reward for good works or for faith alone was important in the Protestant Reformation. There has also been controversy over the means of grace: Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and some Protestants believe that it is conferred through the sacraments, while some other Protestants (e.g., Baptists) hold that participation in grace results from personal faith alone. Seealso justification; original sin.

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(1536) Uprising in the northern counties of England against the Reformation legislation of Henry VIII. Royal mandates to dissolve the monasteries in the north triggered riots in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, where 30,000 armed rebels under Robert Aske occupied York, demanding a return to papal obedience and a parliament free from royal influence. Playing for time to assemble enough royal forces to oust the rebels, the 3rd duke of Norfolk made vague promises, and the rebels dispersed, believing they had won, only to be arrested later; about 220 were executed, including Aske.

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later Princess Grace of Monaco

(born Nov. 12, 1929, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Sept. 14, 1982, Monte Carlo, Monaco) U.S. film actress. She studied acting and made her Broadway debut in 1949. Her movie debut came in Fourteen Hours (1951). She gained critical and popular praise with her performances in High Noon (1952), Mogambo (1953), and The Country Girl (1954, Academy Award). Alfred Hitchcock saw “sexual elegance” in her and put her in three of his films—Dial M for Murder (1954), Rear Window (1954), and To Catch a Thief (1955). She made her last movie, High Society (1956), before marrying Prince Rainier III of Monaco. She died in a car accident after suffering a stroke on a winding mountain road in the Côte d'Azur.

Learn more about Kelly, Grace with a free trial on Britannica.com.

later Princess Grace of Monaco

(born Nov. 12, 1929, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Sept. 14, 1982, Monte Carlo, Monaco) U.S. film actress. She studied acting and made her Broadway debut in 1949. Her movie debut came in Fourteen Hours (1951). She gained critical and popular praise with her performances in High Noon (1952), Mogambo (1953), and The Country Girl (1954, Academy Award). Alfred Hitchcock saw “sexual elegance” in her and put her in three of his films—Dial M for Murder (1954), Rear Window (1954), and To Catch a Thief (1955). She made her last movie, High Society (1956), before marrying Prince Rainier III of Monaco. She died in a car accident after suffering a stroke on a winding mountain road in the Côte d'Azur.

Learn more about Kelly, Grace with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 17, 1878, Grand Island, Neb., U.S.—died June 19, 1939, Chicago, Ill.) U.S. social worker, public administrator, educator, and reformer. She graduated from Grand Island College and did graduate work at the University of Nebraska and the University of Chicago, receiving a Ph.D. in political science in 1909. In 1908 she began working at Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago, where she cofounded the Immigrants' Protective League. As director of the U.S. Children's Bureau (1921–34), she fought to end child labour through legislation and restrictions on federal contracts. She worked to win public approval of a constitutional amendment prohibiting child labour; though submitted to the states in 1924, the amendment was never ratified. Her best-known book is The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938).

Learn more about Abbott, Grace with a free trial on Britannica.com.

One of a group of Greek goddesses who personified charm and beauty. Originally fertility goddesses, they were frequently associated with Aphrodite. Their number varied in different legends, but often there were three. They were sometimes said to be the daughters of Zeus and Hera and sometimes of Helios and Aegle, daughter of Zeus.

Learn more about Grace with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 17, 1878, Grand Island, Neb., U.S.—died June 19, 1939, Chicago, Ill.) U.S. social worker, public administrator, educator, and reformer. She graduated from Grand Island College and did graduate work at the University of Nebraska and the University of Chicago, receiving a Ph.D. in political science in 1909. In 1908 she began working at Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago, where she cofounded the Immigrants' Protective League. As director of the U.S. Children's Bureau (1921–34), she fought to end child labour through legislation and restrictions on federal contracts. She worked to win public approval of a constitutional amendment prohibiting child labour; though submitted to the states in 1924, the amendment was never ratified. Her best-known book is The Child and the State (2 vol., 1938).

Learn more about Abbott, Grace with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Grace is a city in Caribou County, Idaho, in the United States. The population was 990 at the 2000 census.

History

The area of Grace was once inhabited by the Shoshone Indians. White settlement dates back to the mid to late 1800s. The Oregon Trail passed within of Grace. Unlike other nearby historic towns such as Paris and Franklin, Grace was not originally settled by Mormon pioneers, but has since become a predominantly Mormon-populated town. The economy in and around Grace has traditionally been driven by agriculture, with potatoes, alfalfa, grain, dairy and ranching being the main staples.

Geography

Grace is located at (42.576245, -111.729599).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.0 square miles (2.6 km²), all of it land.

Grace is one of the northernmost cities along the Wasatch Range which extends approximately south, and is only west of the large fault line that defines the range. Grace is located near the center of Gem Valley.

In stark contrast to the surrounding mountains, the valley floor in the immediate area of Grace is flat due to sedimentary deposit from the prehistoric Lake Bonneville which once covered the valley, of which the Great Salt Lake is a remnant. The Bear River runs to the north and west of Grace.

Grace's neighboring towns are Soda Springs to the north east, Bancroft to the north west, and Preston to the south. It is about from Lava Hot Springs, which is a local tourism and recreation destination. The nearest city with a major airport is Salt Lake City, Utah, which is approximately south.

Geology

There are several extinct volcanoes and lava domes within miles of Grace, which contributes to the dark, nitrogen rich volcanic soil of the area. This soil type is ideal for farming, particularly potatoes and grain. Solid basalt can be found beneath the soil throughout most of the valley and exposed outcrops are common. Other types of rock that are common in the area are limestone and shale. These non-volcanic rock beds are rich with fossils of prehistoric marine life once native to Lake Bonneville, ranging from well preserved molluscan shells, to small fish. Trilobite fossils can often be found in local shale deposits.

The Bear River runs through Black Canyon which originates northwest of town and extends approximately south. Approximately one-half mile downstream from the point of origin, the Black Canyon forms a sharp gorge with steep walls of black basalt cliffs. At this point the gorge is only about wide and nearly deep.

The Wasatch Fault is visible from Grace due to the sharp displacement that creates a small bench at the foot of the mountains. Mild to moderate earthquakes have been reported to originate at the fault.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 990 people, 364 households, and 274 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,002.7 people per square mile (386.1/km²). There were 389 housing units at an average density of 394.0/sq mi (151.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.56% White, 0.20% Native American, 3.33% from other races, and 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.95% of the population.

There were 364 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.3% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.5% were non-families. 23.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.21.

In the city the population was spread out with 31.4% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,303, and the median income for a family was $39,306. Males had a median income of $33,214 versus $14,306 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,452. About 5.7% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over.

Recreation

Although a small community, Grace offers an array of activities that most can enjoy. Hunting and fishing are popular among many residents of Grace, as are motorsports. There are several local canyons that are accessible during the summer by truck or ATV, and in the winter by snowmobile. The nearby Alexander Reservoir provides summertime water recreation such as boating and swimming. The local Niter Ice Cave is accessible year-round and even beginning spelunkers have little trouble exploring the cave. In recent years, however, there has been trouble with graffiti.

Education

There are 4 schools:Grace Elementary, Grace Junior High, Grace High, and Thatcher Elementary. There was a motion recently rejected for a bond approving the demolition of Grace Elementary and Thatcher Elementary and the building of a new school behind the Junior High.

Vocational Sports

In Grace, there are a couple of Pee-Wee and Little League, mainly American football and basketball. Neither of the elementaries support teams. The junior high supports track/athletics, American football, basketball (boys and girls), and volleyball. The high school also supports all these sports, along with golf, and formerly supported cross country. The basketball teams, both boys and girls, have been successful for the majority of their duration. The football program, while successful in the past, has not won a game for 2 years.

See also

Niter Ice Cave

Caribou County

Idaho

References

External links

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