See R. S. Mattison, Grace Hartigan: A Painter's World (1990).
See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).
See biography by J. Arcana (1993); G. Bach and B. H. Hall, ed., Conversations with Grace Paley (1997); studies by N. D. Isaacs (1990) and J. Taylor (1990).
Supernatural grace is usually defined as being actual or sanctifying. Actual grace turns the soul to God; sanctifying grace confirms and perpetuates the ends of this conversion and makes the soul habitually good. Most theologies (except in Calvinism), wishing to maintain humanity's freedom in addition to God's complete freedom in granting grace, distinguish prevenient grace, which frees a person and awakens him or her to God's call, from cooperating grace, by which God assists to salvation the free person who seeks it.
When God seems to confer on a person such actual grace that his or her conversion appears inevitable, the grace is said to be efficacious. The apparent difficulty of claiming that grace may be efficacious while a person is free was explained by St. Thomas Aquinas on the ground that it was a peculiar nature of this grace granted to some people that it should be ineluctable; it was this doctrine that Luis Molina and the Molinists disputed. Differing in effect from efficacious grace is merely sufficient grace, which, while sufficient to conversion, may be rejected by a person at will. Calvinism rejects merely sufficient grace, holding instead that grace is irresistible.
In every Christian theology God is considered to grant grace quite freely, since its gift is far greater than any person can merit. As to which persons are offered this grace, there is great difference. The generality hold that it is offered to people who place no obstacle in the way of salvation rather than to those who neglect what ways to grace they have been given; the Jansenists (see Jansen, Cornelis), however, believed that grace was not given outside the church, and the Calvinists hold that it is offered only to those predestined to election.
Sanctifying grace may be said to succeed justification as actual grace precedes it. The operation of sanctifying grace brings holiness to the individual soul. The indwelling of God in the soul and the soul's actual participation in God's nature (in an indefinable manner) are the perfections of sanctifying grace. As to the means, there is a serious cleavage in Christianity, notably in regard to sacramental grace. According to Roman Catholics and Orthodox, the grace accompanying a sacrament is ex opere operato, i.e., by God's ordinance the sacrament actually confers grace, the good disposition of the minister being unimportant and that of the recipient being not always a condition; Protestants hold that the sacraments are ex opere operantis, i.e., the faith of the recipient is all-important, and the sacrament is the sign, not the source of grace.
Certain Christian systems have developed quite different ideas of grace, and Pelagianism has its advocates in liberal 20th-century Protestantism. The great emphasis on grace is a distinction of Christianity. In recent years among orthodox theologians there has been a renewed interest in the theology of grace. Among traditional usages, they distinguish three forms of grace: God's communication of Himself to the Christian soul is grace; the favorable attitude of God toward the soul is grace; the ontological modification of Christian life by God's favor is grace.
See biography by his grandson, J. P. Grace (1953).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.0 square miles (2.6 km²), all of it land.
Grace is one of the northernmost cities along the Wasatch Range which extends approximately south, and is only west of the large fault line that defines the range. Grace is located near the center of Gem Valley.
In stark contrast to the surrounding mountains, the valley floor in the immediate area of Grace is flat due to sedimentary deposit from the prehistoric Lake Bonneville which once covered the valley, of which the Great Salt Lake is a remnant. The Bear River runs to the north and west of Grace.
Grace's neighboring towns are Soda Springs to the north east, Bancroft to the north west, and Preston to the south. It is about from Lava Hot Springs, which is a local tourism and recreation destination. The nearest city with a major airport is Salt Lake City, Utah, which is approximately south.
The Bear River runs through Black Canyon which originates northwest of town and extends approximately south. Approximately one-half mile downstream from the point of origin, the Black Canyon forms a sharp gorge with steep walls of black basalt cliffs. At this point the gorge is only about wide and nearly deep.
The Wasatch Fault is visible from Grace due to the sharp displacement that creates a small bench at the foot of the mountains. Mild to moderate earthquakes have been reported to originate at the fault.
There were 364 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.3% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.5% were non-families. 23.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.21.
In the city the population was spread out with 31.4% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,303, and the median income for a family was $39,306. Males had a median income of $33,214 versus $14,306 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,452. About 5.7% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over.
There are 4 schools:Grace Elementary, Grace Junior High, Grace High, and Thatcher Elementary. There was a motion recently rejected for a bond approving the demolition of Grace Elementary and Thatcher Elementary and the building of a new school behind the Junior High.
In Grace, there are a couple of Pee-Wee and Little League, mainly American football and basketball. Neither of the elementaries support teams. The junior high supports track/athletics, American football, basketball (boys and girls), and volleyball. The high school also supports all these sports, along with golf, and formerly supported cross country. The basketball teams, both boys and girls, have been successful for the majority of their duration. The football program, while successful in the past, has not won a game for 2 years.