There are several standing stones and hill fort sites of ancient origin in the vicinity. Gogar was the site of a medieval village, Nether Gogar, which has long since disappeared, although the small Gogar Kirk (church) still stands as a reminder of the village it once served. The church dates from the 12th century; while the present building was mostly rebuilt by J. A. Williamson between 1890-1, the 16th century south transept is still intact. The church fell out of use by 1602 and was thereafter used as a mausoleum. It is currently a cabinet-maker's workshop.
On 27 August 1650, a skirmish took place around Gogar between the forces of Oliver Cromwell and General Leslie, who was camped in the area around Gogar Kirk. While the marshy ground prevented the opposing sides meeting at close quarters, both sides fired cannon upon the other inflicting minor casualties.
In 2003, medieval remains were discovered near the site of the new headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland. Pottery shards, rubbish pits, and animal bones were unearthed north of the A8, opposite the bank's headquarters. The items suggest the site was used for agriculture in medieval times. The new bank HQ is highly controversial, particularly as many see it as a precedent for more construction in the Green Belt.
In 2005, the new headquarters of the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency was opened in farmland bordering the M8.