There have been many conflicts in the Middle East since the time of the ancient Near East up until modern times.
Battle of Kadesh
During the 20th and 21st centuries, there have been a number of conflicts in the Middle East
A 30 year war from 1961-1991 between Ethiopia
As part of the broader tensions between monarchical, pro-Western governments and Nasserite, socialist governments, the Syrian
governments of the sixties were opposed to the Jordanian
monarchy; in 1960, the assassination of the Jordanian prime minister Hazza al-Majali
was blamed on Syria
(at the time, the United Arab Republic
.) Tensions increased further after King Hussein ended official support for the PLO
in 1966; in September 1970, a Syrian military unit crossed into Jordan to aid the PLO
against the Jordanian army (see Black September in Jordan
). The Syrian force was repulsed, but relations remained tense and were severed in July 1971. In 1975, Jordan and Syria attempted to put aside past hostilities between them and create a new alliance. In 1979, King Hussein of Jordan
proposed an alternative to the Camp David accords
to which Hafez al-Assad
of Syria strongly objected; this marked the beginning of a rapid deterioration in Jordanian-Syrian relations. In 1979 Syria
accused the Kingdom of Jordan
of supporting the Muslim Brotherhood
's attacks against Assad's government. Since then the tensions have dissipated and now relations between the two countries are normal.
- PLO-Jordanian government war in September 1970.
- PLO militia attempt to overthrow current Hashemite government through armed force.
- Conflict results in heavy Palestinian casualties and ban on Palestinians joining Jordanian army.
(1962–1970) The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
received support from Saudi Arabia
, while the Yemen Arab Republic
was supported by Egypt
. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved. The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser
, supported the republicans with as many as 70,000 troops.
(1975–1990) Because of religious and ethnic tensions, the country became socially unstable. Interference from the outside, mainly Western, exacerbated the situation and caused a civil war. The civil war spanned over two decades and grabbed the attention of the world through abductions of Westerners. Ultimately the United Nations decided to intervene. By trial and error the situation ultimately got under control, but tensions still rest in the Lebanese society, and although the war ended, the risk of civil war is still present.
's first negotiations with Israel
in 1973, Libya
became hostile to Egypt
. In 1977, not long after demonstrators in the two countries attacked each other's consulates, the two countries fought a four-day war (July 21
) during which several Libyan aircraft were destroyed on the ground. As a counter attack, Libyan combat aircraft attacked, hitting the Egyptian base Marsa Matruh and other targets near the border.
The war ended with a peace treaty signed with Egypt and Libya to unite in a war effort against Arab Extremists.
Kuwait and Iraq had a serious territorial dispute that led to armed warfare in 1973 and again in 1976. Iraq wanted Kuwait's oil and ports, and argued that Kuwait was rightfully theirs due to pre-British imperial boundaries. In 1990 Iraq occupied Kuwait, but was expelled in 1991.
Sometimes called the First Persian Gulf War. In this war Syria entered on the side of Iran, against Iraq, with aid and supplies. All other Arab countries except for Libya, the United States and Western World, as well as the USSR and Warsaw pact supported Iraq, imposing embargoes on Iran.
The war ended after 8 years, when after Iraq, Iran accepted a resolution of the UN asking for the halt of military activities. The frontiers were re-established to those before the war.
Gulf War and aftermath
- During the Gulf War, a United Nations force led by the United States restored Kuwaiti sovereignty after the 1990 Iraqi invasion.
Between the 1991 and 2003 wars, the US, UK, and (until 1996) France continued to enforce no-fly zones over large areas of Iraq, to protect Shiite and Kurdish Iraqis from air attacks by the Iraqi government. Many people of Iraq and other countries considered this to be a continuous invasion of Iraqi airspace, and thus, one war from 1991-2003. The United Nations ran a maritime blockade Iraq's Persian Gulf oil ports between the two wars, to enforce sanctions in response to Iraq's refusal to comply fully with UN inspections, to verify that it no longer had weapons of mass destruction. Some of the engagements included:
- In 2003, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded and occupied Iraq after a dispute over the status of the Iraqi Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical weapons programs. This war is sometimes known as the Second Gulf War.
Fatah al-Islam and Nahr al-Bared
In May 2007, a skirmish between Fatah al-Islam, an Islamist group, and the Lebanese Army evolved into a three-month siege of the Palestinian refugee camp Nahr al-Bared in which more than 400 people died.