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Haryana

[huhr-ee-ah-nuh]
Haryana (हरियाणा, Punjabi: ਹਰਿਆਣਾ, hərɪjaːɳaː) is a state in northern India. It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. Eastern border to Uttarakhand & Uttar Pradesh is defined by river Yamuna. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of the state is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab. The name Haryana means "The Abode of God" from Sanskrit Hari (the Hindu God Vishnu) and ayana (home), although it may also refer to the lush green landscape of the state (from Sanskrit harit meaning green).

Haryana was the cradle of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations, both flourishing on the banks of the now lost Saraswati river. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province during the British Raj, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.

The state of Haryana has the 3rd highest per capita income in the country at Rs 29,887, including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India. It is one of the leading industrialized states of India, and is considered to be the current growth engine of India, with the city of Gurgaon rapidly emerging as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero Honda Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Panipat, Panchkula and Faridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel and textile industries in the state.

History

The state of Haryana has played a very important role in the history of India since ancient times. In the times of British India, Haryana was administered as a part of the Punjab province and played a vital role in the politics of the region.

Vedic period

Many settlements dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization have been found along river Saraswati bed, at Naurangabad and Mittathal in Bhiwani District, Kunal, in Fatehabad District, Agroha and Rakhigarhi in Hisar District, Rukhi in Rohtak District and Banawali in Sirsa District. The ancient Vedic civilization also flourished on the banks of the Saraswati, and the hymns of Rigveda were composed here.

In some ancient Hindu texts, the boundaries of Kurukshetra correspond roughly to the state of Haryana. Thus according to the Taittiriya Aranyaka 5.1.1., the Kurukshetra region is south of Turghna (Srughna/Sugh in Sirhind, Punjab), north of Khandava (Delhi and Mewat region), east of Maru (desert) and west of Parin.

Mahabharata, the great epic of India mentions Haryana as Bahudhhanyaka, 'land of plentiful grains' and Bahudhana, 'land of immense riches'. Several places mentioned in Mahabharata correspond to modern day cities in Haryana: Prithudaka (Pehowa), Tilprastha (Tilput), Panprastha (Panipat) and Sonprastha (Sonipat).Gurgaon refers to the village of the Guru Dronacharya. The great battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas took place near the city of Kurukshetra. Krishna preached the Bhagvad Gita to the reluctant Arjuna there. For eighteen days, armies from all over India battled on the plains of Kurukshetra to decide who would sit on the throne of Hastinapur.

Emperor Janamejaya's younger brother, Prince Kakshasena established a separate independent kingdom at Indraprastha, which later rose to become a dominant force in its own right.[1]

Emperor Janamejaya’s youngest brother Raja Nakay Rao, a Tomar Rajput established a kingdom at Kalanaur in Northern India. Modern day political boundaries today locate Kalanaur City in the district of Rohtak in Haryana, India. Centuries later in early 7th. Century, Jiral Dynasty arose taking the name Jiral from Raja Jai Rao, a Tomar Rajput direct descendant of Emperor Janamejaya and the Pandavas of the Mahabharata. Jirals ruled a big part of Northern India from 7th. to 11th. Century. Jiral Raja participated in both the Battles of Thanesar (Tarrain) 1191 and 1192 being related to Prithviraj Chauhan through his wife, daughter of King Anangpal of Dehli.

Maharaja Agrasen is said to have established a flourishing city of merchants at Agroha near modern Hisar. Legend has it that anyone wishing to settle in the city was given a brick and a rupee by each of the city's lakh residents. Thus, they would have enough bricks to build a house and enough money to start a business of their own.

Medieval period

After ousting the Huns, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas continued to rule over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha's adopted capital of Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more as central as Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.

The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. In the second battle of Panipat (November 5, 1556), Akbar's forces defeated the Hindu king Hem Chandra Vikramaditya also called Hemu,who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and who had won 22 battles during 1553-1556 before acceeding to Delhi throne. The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively, on January 13, 1761.

British Raj

During the British Raj, most of Haryana formed a part of the Punjab province. Some parts were ruled by the princely states of Loharu, Nabha, Jind and Patiala. During the Indian rebellion of 1857, several leaders from this region, including Rao Tula Ram, participated actively. Later, during the Indian Freedom fight people from Haryana took part actively and fought a lot of battles with them. A lot of battles were fought by not only the Kings of territories but by the farmers also. British army was defeated at a lot of places. Some most important fights were from Sonipat , Rohtak , Sirsa and Hissar. In Sirsa the famous battle of Chormar was fought. Later, leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram played an important role in the politics of the Punjab province. Rao Tula Ram was one of the most important leaders of the 1857 revolt.

Formation of Haryana

Haryana state was formed on 1 November, 1966, on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April, 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people. The commission gave its report on 31 May, 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hissar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the Tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur), Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhari were also to be included. The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should be a part of Haryana.

The city of Chandigarh, and a Punjabi speaking area of district Rupnagar were made a union territory serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh was due to transfer to the state of Punjab in 1986 according to the Rajiv-Longowal Accord, but the transfer was delayed pending an agreement on which parts of the Hindi-speaking areas of Abohar and Fazilka, currently part of Firozpur District of Punjab, were to be transferred to Haryana in exchange.

Geography

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is located between 27°37' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km² is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.

Rivers of Haryana: The river Yamuna flows along its eastern boundary. The ancient Saraswati river was thought to have flowed through Haryana, but it has now disappeared.

The river Ghaggar is Haryana's main seasonal river. The Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters Haryana near Pinjore, district Panchkula. Passing through Ambala and Hissar, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs a course of 290 miles before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan.

The Markanda river's ancient name was Aruna. A seasonal stream like the Ghaggar, it originates from the lower Shivalik hills and enters Haryana near Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati.

An important tributary is the Tangri. The Sahibi originates in the Mewat hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. On reaching Rohtak it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into the Yamuna. There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills – Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south.

Climate

The climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season (July-September) and sometimes causes local flooding.

Flora and Fauna of Haryana

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog.

Demographics

The population of Haryana, according to the 2001 census, is 21,144,000, with 11,364,000 males and 9,781,000 females. The population density is 477 people/km2. Haryana, along with neighboring Punjab, has a skewed sex ratio at 861, with many more men than women. Selective abortion of female fetuses has a very high provenance, reflecting a widespread preference for the male child.

Hindus make up about 88% of the population, Sikhs 5.5%% Muslims 5.8%, Jains 0.3%, Christians 0.1% and Buddhists 0.03%. Muslims are mainly in the Mewat district, while Sikhs are mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab. Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. These days the state is seeing a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal and Nepal.

Culture of Haryana

Haryana is proud of its rich cultural heritage that goes way back to the Vedic times. The state is rich in folklore. The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age old customs of meditation, yoga and chanting of vedic mantras, are still observed by the masses. The seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. Dance is said to be the mother of all arts and Haryana boasts of a dance form called Ghoomer. Music and poetry exist in tune, painting and architecture in space. Dance is not just a form of recreation but something needed to release the physical and emotional energy. Folk dances, like other creative art, help in sublimating the performer's worries and cares. The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight.

With Hindi and Haryanvi forming the main languages, there are numerous other dialects spoken in Haryana. However, almost all of them are derived from ancient Sanskrit and Prakrit. Sanskrit is still taught in most of the schools in Haryana. In towns and cities, English is widely spoken with a hazy mixture of Hindi. The most striking feature of Haryana is its language itself; or rather, the manner in which it is spoken. Popularly known as Haryanvi or Bangaru, it is perhaps a bit crude, but full of earthy humor and straightforwardness. With rapid urbanization and due to Haryana's close proximity to Delhi, the cultural aspects are now taking on a more modern hue.

Haryanvi Films in Cultural Revival

In modern times, films have become one of the most powerful medium of entertainment in India. At present India is one of the most prolific countries in the field of film-making. Hindi films are not only popular in India but also across the globe. Besides Hindi films, which are mostly produced in Bombay, a remarkable progress has been made in regional films. South India and West Bengal have attained a remarkable position in producing regional films, depicting the cultural heritage of the surrounding regions. However, the making of regional films in the Hindi belt of North India could not match the other regions due to the fact that the Hindi-speaking people of the Hindi heartland have been getting entertainment through Bollywood movies. Hence, the production of films in Gujarati, Rajasthani, Avadhi and Bhojpuri is a rather recent development. But compared with regional films in South Indian languages, Bengali and Marathi, the progress has been slow.

In the context of Haryana, the number of films produced remained very small till 1984. In the 70s, only two Haryanvi movies were released, Harphool Singh and Beera Shera. Both the films failed in catching the imagination of the Haryanvi people because they did not represent the true culture of Haryana. After the failure of these two Haryanvi films, nobody dared to produce a Haryanvi film for a decade. However in 1980, a few youngsters having an active interest in the production of Haryanvi films approached Devi Shankar Prabhakar to help them with their cause.

When Chandrawal was released in March 1984, it created a stir in the film industry. Chandrawal broke all records on the box-office in Haryana, Western U.P., Delhi and parts of Rajasthan. It surpasses the great hit Hindi films like Sholay and Bobby in these parts of India. The entire cost of the film was recovered from the window of Gagan Cinema, Faridabad where the film celebrated Silver Jubilee. In Western U.P., the film even surpassed the success of Haryana when it celebrated its Golden Jubilee in Muzaffarnagar and Silver Jubilee in Meerut, Shamli and Saharanpur. Chandrawal set a world record and the producers of the movie honoured a dozen cine-goers of Haryana and Western U.P., who watched the movie more than 200 times each.

The unprecedented success of Chandrawal created wide-spread temptation amongst investors for producing Haryanvi films in order to make fast money. Just after Chandrawal a number of films were produced by many different producers with titles like Gulabo, Ke Sapne Ka Jikar, Chhora Haryana Ka, Bateu, Bhanwer Chameli, Chhori Supelle Ki, Panghat and others. The films produced under the banner of Prabhakar Films have maintained their leading position in the field. After Chandrawal came Laddo Basanti in 1985 and Phool Badan in 1986. Though these films could not recreate the magic of Chandrawal in terms of financial gains, yet both these films became popular with the people.

Government and politics

Like in all other states of India, the head of state of Haryana is the Governor, a largely ceremonial position, who is appointed by the President of India. The Chief Minister is the head of the Haryana state government and is vested with most of the executive powers. Haryana’s legislature is unicameral; its one house, the Haryana Legislative Assembly, consists of 90 members. Haryana has five seats in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India's national parliament, and ten in the Lok Sabha, the lower house. The largest political parties in Haryana are the Indian National Lok Dal, Bhartiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress. The present political scenario of the state is clear and it has a stable government under Bhupinder Singh Hooda who is presently the Chief Minister of the state.

Economy

Haryana is financially healthy. Haryana had a fiscal deficit of 0.6 per cent in financial year 2006-07. Haryana tops the list in terms of per capita investment in the fiscal year 2007 with an investment of Rs 1,86,045 crore. Ninety-three of top Fortune 100 companies with their corporate offices and production bases already in Haryana. Haryana, carved out of Punjab and known as its poor cousin, has edged past the state on most parameters of economic development. Haryana has the largest number of rural crorepatis in India. In 2006-07 Haryana received a foreign direct investment projects of over Rs 11,000 crore in the state and corporate sector. Reliance Ventures, a group company of India's largest private sector company Reliance Industries will set up a multi-product special economic zone in Haryana. At an investment of Rs 40,000 crore, the project will be India's largest SEZ spread over 25,000 acres. The state has a developed banking system with over 4500 bank branches.

Manufacturing

More than a thousand medium and large industries with a capital investment of Rs. 2000 billion or $ 40.4 billion have been established in the state in mainly Gurgaon, Panchkula, Faridabad and Bahadurgarh. As a result, Haryana's share in national production is 50% of passenger cars, 50% of motorcycles, 30% of refrigerators, 25% of tractors, bicycles and sanitary wares, and 20% of the country's export of scientific instruments. These include Hindustan National Glass, Maruti Udyog Limited, Escorts, Hero Honda, Alcatel, Sony, Whirlpool India, Bharti Telecom, Liberty Shoes and Hindustan Machine Tools. In addition there are more than 80,000 small-scale industrial units in the state which cumulatively bring in a substantial income for the state and its people. Yamunanagar district has a paper mill BILT, Haryana has a large production of cars, motorcycles, tractors, sanitary ware, glass container industry, gas stoves and scientific instruments.

Faridabad is another big industrial part of Haryana. It is home to hundreds of large scale companies like Orient fans (C.K.Birla Group), JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group (Escorts Limited), Yamaha Motor India Pvt. Ltd., Whirlpool, ABB, Goodyear Tyres, Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd. There are thousands of medium and small scale units as well, like Amrit Enterprises, McAma Industries. Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle "Pachranga International" is also well known. Panipat also has heavy industry, with a refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation, a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant and a National Fertilizers Limited plant.

Service Industry

Gurgaon is the best city for setting up a software or BPO centre in India. This is according to a research on Offshore Competitiveness conducted by neoIT, an offshoring consultancy. Gurgaon, has seen emergence of an active information technology industry in the recent years. With organisations like IBM, Hewitt Associates, Dell, Convergys, United Healthcare and NIIT setting up back offices or contact centers in Gurgaon. Haryana now ranks 3rd among states in software exports from India. Establishment of Nano City a joint venture between the Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) and Nano Works Developers Private Ltd, a company promoted by Sabeer Bhatia, the much talked about creator of Hotmail will further boost the state position in this sector.

Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Haryana at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in Crore Rupees.

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1999-2000 50,787
2000-2001 56,955
2001-2002 63,489
2002-2003 69,653
2003-2004 78,816
2004-2005 89,431
2005-2006 100,676
2007-2008 101,319.42
The contribution of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors for the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) in 2007-08 is Rs. 21,265.92 crore, Rs. 30,919.95 crore and Rs.49,133.55 crore respectively Over 3% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Haryana.

Agriculture

Despite recent industrial development, Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. About 70% of residents are engaged in agriculture Wheat and rice are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's central pool of food grains. The main crops of Haryana are Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Cotton, Oilseeds, Gram, Barley, Corn, Millet etc. There are two main types of crops in Haryana: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crops of Haryana are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame and groundnut. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, gram, linseed, rapeseed and mustard. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning of November and the crops are harvested by March.

About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tubewells and an extensive system of canals. Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia's biggest agricultural University - Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar and it has made a significant contribution in ushering in the 'Green Revolution' in the state. Haryana has a very fine irrigation infrastructure. Irrigation in Haryana uses water either from under the ground or from surface through canals. Numerous canals have been dug and pumps put up to make sure that the farmer doesn’t pack up and leave in times of drought. Currently in Haryana, the most important technology for groundwater irrigation is the use of tube wells with a submersible pump.

Dairy Farming

Dairy farming is also an essential part of the rural economy. Haryana has a livestock population of 98.97 lakh.Milk and milk products form an essential part of the local diet. There is the saying Desaan main des Haryana, jit doodh dahi ka khaana, which means "Best among all the countries in the world is Haryana, where the staple food is milk and yoghurt". Haryana, with 660 grams of availability of milk per capita per day, ranks at number two in the country as against the national average of 232 grams. There is a vast network of milk societies that support the dairy industry. The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer technology. The Murrah breed of water buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk production.

Roads and Infrastructure

Haryana is a trend setter in the field of passenger transport. It has a total road length of 23684 kilometers. The remotest parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million Kilometers per day. It was the first State in the country to introduce luxury video coaches. Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and free ways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6-km long Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Jhajjar, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July. 2009. Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are located in close proximity to the state.

Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the State. Haryana was the first State in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970, first in the country to link all villages with all weather roads and first in the country to provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state Haryana is well connected on the railway network as well. The main railway routes passing through Haryana are: Amritsar - Delhi, Rewari - Ahmedabad, Bhiwani - Rohtak - Delhi, Ambala - Ferozepur, Delhi - Ferozepur, Kalka - Jodhpur, Kalka - Howrah, Amritsar - Howrah and Delhi - Shimla

Communication and Media

Haryana has a state-wide network of highly efficient telecommunication facilities. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea and Vodafone Essar) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are also an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh and Kundli. The major newspapers of Haryana are Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Bhaskar, The Times of India and Hari-Bhumi.

Divisions

The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purpose - Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hisar Division. There are 20 districts, 47 sub-divisions, 67 tehsils, 45 sub-tehsils and 116 blocks. Haryana has a total of 81 cities and towns. It has 6,759 villages.

Districts

Ambala Division

Gurgaon Division

Hisar Division

Rohtak Division

Education

The state of Haryana has made tremendous expansion in the field of higher education since its inception. It has been the endeavor of the government to make educational facilities available to the poorest of children. 32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the year 2004-05. Now accessibility to schooling is available within the radius of 1.10 km, 1.38 km, 1.66 km and 2.79 km at the primary, middle, high and senior secondary levels respectively. During 2001-02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state. Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March, and 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year. The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the Bachelor's Degree level.

Leading institute for Technical Education in Haryana is NIT Kurukshetra. Earlier it was famous by the name Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra. There are five universities in the state. Technical education and management studies are provided by Maharishi Dayanand University at Rohtak have an University Institute Of Engg. & Tech.,University Campus named as U.I.E.T.,ROHTAK, Kurukshetra University at Kurukshetra, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology at Hisar and Chaudhary Devi Lal University at Sirsa. Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University at Hisar is one of the biggest agricultural universities in Asia. It is engaged in education, research and development related to agriculture. The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal provides education in the field of dairy science. It has been upgraded to the level of a Deemed University. There are medical colleges in Rohtak, Mullana and Agroha. Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak is a premier post-graduate medical institute in North India offering courses in major specialties and super specialties of medicine. There is also the Management Development Institute in Gurgaon, which is amongst the premier management institutes of India.

Sports and Youth Development

Haryana is one of the leading states in sports as well. During the 33rd National games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood 4th in the nation with a medal tally of 80, including 30 Gold, 22 Silver and 28 Bronze medals. In team sports, Haryana is the national champion in Men's Volleyball and Women's hockey. Haryana is a traditional powerhouse in games like kabbadi, kho-kho, judo, boxing and wrestling. Sports in the state are managed by the Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Haryana. Nahar Singh Stadium for international cricket was built in Faridabad in the year 1981. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators. The Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Panchkula is a multi-sport complex. It came into prominence because of the Indian Cricket League's inaugural Twenty20 tournament. The DLF golf course in Gurgaon offers challenging play for golfers of all skill levels and a natural beauty that envelops your senses.

In the Beijing Olympics 2008 sportspersons from Harayna exhibited high level of competitiveness especially in the field of boxing. In middleweight category Vijender Kumar was awarded his middleweight (75 kg) bronze medal. Vijender happends to be the first Indian boxer to win a medal in Olympic games.

External links

References

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