is an oral medium-to-long acting anti-diabetic drug
from the sulfonylurea
class. It is classified as a second generation sulfonylurea, which means that it undergoes enterohepatic circulation. The structure on the R2 group is a much larger cyclo or aromatic group compared to the 1st generation sulfonylureas. This leads to a once a day dosing that is much less than the first generation, about 100 fold.
Mechanism of action is produced by blocking potassium
channels in the beta cells
of the islets of langerhans
. By partially blocking the potassium
channels, it will increase the time the cell spends in the calcium release stage of cell signaling leading to an increase in calcium. The increase in calcium will initiate more insulin release from each beta cell.
Originally available in 1984, it is marketed by Pfizer under the brand name Glucotrol in the USA, where Pfizer sells Glucotrol in doses of 5 and 10 milligrams and Glucotrol XL (an extended release form of glipizide) in doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 milligrams. Other companies sell generic forms of glipizide, most commonly extended release tablets of 5 and 10 milligrams.