Grazing incidence is used in X-ray spectroscopy and atom optics, where significant reflection can be achieved only at small values of the grazing angle. Ridged mirrors are designed for reflection of atoms coming at small grazing angle. This angle is usually measured in milliradians.
In aviation, angle of incidence is the angle between the wing's chord and the longitudinal axis of an aircraft (a fixed value). The figure to the right shows a side view of part of an aeroplane. The wing (dotted blue line) makes an angle a with the longitudinal axis (roll axis) of the aircraft (solid blue line). The wings are typically mounted at a small positive angle of incidence, to allow the fuselage to be "flat" to the airflow in normal cruising flight. Angles of incidence of about 6° are common on most general aviation designs.
Another term for angle of incidence in this context is rigging angle. It should not be confused with the angle of attack, which is the angle the wing chord presents to the airflow in flight. Note that some ambiguity in this terminology exists, as some engineering texts that focus solely on the study of airfoils and their medium may use either term when referring to angle of attack. The use of the term "angle of incidence" to refer to the angle of attack occurs chiefly in British usage.