is concerned with the Jewish Messiah
, and the revival of the dead
, generically, is the area of theology
concerned with the final events in the history of the world, the ultimate destiny of humanity, and related concepts.
The Hebrew word Mashiach
) means anointed one
, and refers to a human being who will usher in a messianic era of peace and prosperity for both the living and the deceased:
Judaism has taught that a moshiach ("messiah") will bring about a revival of both the ancient united Kingdom of Israel and its ancient form of sacrificial worship in the Temple in Jerusalem.
In the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)
Most of the textual requirements concerning the messiah, what he will do, and what will be done during his reign are located within the Book of Isaiah
, although requirements are mentioned in other prophets as well.
- The Sanhedrin will be re-established (Isaiah 1:26)
- Once he is King, leaders of other nations will look to him for guidance (Isaiah 2:4)
- The whole world will worship the One God of Israel (Isaiah 2:17)
- He will be descended from King David (Isaiah 11:1) via King Solomon (1 Chron. 22:8–10)
- The Moshiach will be a man of this world, an observant Jew with "fear of God" (Isaiah 11:2)
- Evil and tyranny will not be able to stand before his leadership (Isaiah 11:4)
- Knowledge of God will fill the world (Isaiah 11:9)
- He will include and attract people from all cultures and nations (Isaiah 11:10)
- All Israelites will be returned to their homeland (Isaiah 11:12)
- Death will be swallowed up forever (Isaiah 25:8)
- There will be no more hunger or illness, and death will cease (Isaiah 25:8)
- All of the dead will rise again (Isaiah 26:19)
- The Jewish people will experience eternal joy and gladness (Isaiah 51:11)
- He will be a messenger of peace (Isaiah 52:7)
- Nations will recognize the wrongs they did Israel (Isaiah 52:13–53:5)
- For My House (the Temple in Jerusalem) shall be called a house of prayer for all nations (Isaiah 56:3–7)
- The peoples of the world will turn to the Jews for spiritual guidance (Zechariah 8:23)
- The ruined cities of Israel will be restored (Ezekiel 16:55)
- Weapons of war will be destroyed (Ezekiel 39:9)
- The Temple will be rebuilt (Ezekiel 40) resuming many of the suspended mitzvot
- He will then perfect the entire world to serve God together (Zephaniah 3:9)
- Jews will know the Torah without Study (Jeremiah 31:33)
- He will give you all the desires of your heart (Psalms 37:4)
- He will take the barren land and make it abundant and fruitful (Isaiah 51:3, Amos 9:13–15, Ezekiel 36:29–30, Isaiah 11:6–9)
In the Talmud
The Babylonian Talmud
, tractate Sanhedrin
, contains a long discussion of the events leading to the coming of the Messiah, for example:
Throughout Jewish history Jews have compared these passages (and others) to contemporary events in search of signs of the Messiah's imminent arrival, continuing into present times. For example, many Orthodox Jewish leaders, have suggested that the devastation among Jews wrought by the Holocaust may represent a sign of hope for the Messiah's present imminent arrival.
The Talmud tells many stories about the Messiah, some of which represent famous Talmudic rabbis as receiving personal visitations from Elijah the Prophet and the Messiah. For example:
In Rabbinic Commentaries
The Medieval rabbinic figure Maimonides
(Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon), also known as the Rambam
, notable for efforts to synthesize classical Jewish tradition with Aristotelian rationalism and the scientific beliefs of his age, wrote a commentary to tractate Sanhedrin
stressing a relatively naturalistic interpretation of the Messiah and de-emphasizing miraculous elements. His commentary became widely (although not universally) accepted in the non- or less-mystical branches of Orthodox Judaism
Belief in a personal messiah of the Davidic line
is a universal tenet of faith among Orthodox Jews and one of Maimonides
' thirteen principles of faith
Some authorities in Orthodox Judaism believe that this era will lead to supernatural events culminating in a bodily resurrection of the dead. Maimonides, on the other hand, holds that the events of the messianic era are not specifically connected with the resurrection. (See the Maimonides article.)
varies in its teachings. While it retains traditional references to a personal redeemer and prayers for the restoration of the Davidic line
in the liturgy, Conservative Jews are more inclined to accept the idea of a messianic era:
generally concurs with the more liberal Conservative perspective of a future messianic era rather than a personal messiah. Reflecting its philosophical position, Reform Judaism, unlike Conservative Judaism, has altered the traditional prayers to refer to "Redemption" rather than "a Redeemer" and removed petitions for restoration of the House of David.
rejects the ideas of both a personal messiah and a divinely instituted messianic age. It does teach that human beings can help bring about a better future world. Like Reform Judaism, Reconstructionist Judaism has also altered traditional prayers so that they no longer refer to a personal Messiah.
The afterlife and olam haba (the "world to come")
Although Judaism concentrates on the importance of the Earthly world (Olam Ha'zeh — "this world"), all of classical Judaism posits an afterlife. Jewish tradition affirms that the human soul is immortal and thus survives the physical death of the body. The Hereafter is known as Olam Haba (the "world to come"), Gan Eden (the Heavenly "Garden of Eden", or Paradise) and Gehinom ("Purgatory").
) lists belief in the resurrection
as one of three essential beliefs necessary for a Jew to participate in it:
- All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it is written: Thy people are all righteous; they shall inherit the land forever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I may be glorified.' But the following have no portion therein: one who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, the Torah was not divinely revealed, and an Apikoros ("Epicurean, apostate"). Mishnah Sanhedrin 10:1, Talmud Sanhedrin 90a.
The Gemara (Berachos 18b) relates several stories of people who visited cemeteries and either overheard conversations among dead people or actually conversed with the dead themselves, and received information that was later verified as factually correct.
The Shem HaGedolim by the Chida, (entry on Rebbe Eliezer bar Nosson), relates and discusses several incidents of dead Sages returning to our world to visit their families and friends.
Medieval rabbinical views
While all classic rabbinic sources discuss the afterlife, the classic Medieval scholars
dispute the nature of existence in the "End of Days" after the messianic period. While Maimonides
describes an entirely spiritual existence for souls, which he calls "disembodied intellects," Nahmanides
discusses an intensely spiritual existence on Earth, where spirituality and physicality are merged. Both agree that life after death is as Maimonides describes the "End of Days." This existence entails an extremely heightened understanding of and connection to the Divine Presence. This view is shared by all classic rabbinic scholars.
There is much rabbinic material on what happens to the soul of the deceased after death, what it experiences, and where it goes. At various points in the afterlife journey, the soul may encounter: Hibbut ha-kever, the pains of the grave; Dumah, the angel of silence; Satan as the angel of death; the Kaf ha-Kela, the catapult of the soul; Gehinom (purgatory); and Gan Eden (heaven or paradise). All classic rabbinic scholars agree that these concepts are beyond typical human understanding. Therefore, these ideas are expressed throughout rabbinic literature through many varied parables and analogies.
Gehinom is fairly well defined in rabbinic literature. It is sometimes translated as "hell", but one should note that the Christian view of hell differs greatly from the classical Jewish view. In Judaism, gehinom — while certainly a terribly unpleasant place or state — is not hell. The overwhelming majority of rabbinic thought maintains that souls are not tortured in gehinom forever; the longest that one can be there is said to be twelve months, with extremely rare exception. This is the reason that even when in mourning for near relatives, Jews will not recite mourner's kaddish for longer than an eleven month period. Gehinom is considered a spiritual forge where the soul is purified for its eventual ascent to Gan Eden ("Garden of Eden").
In Orthodox Judaism
maintains the tenet of the bodily resurrection of the dead, including traditional references to it in the liturgy.
In Conservative Judaism
has generally retained the tenet of the bodily resurrection of the dead, including traditional references to it in the liturgy. However, many Conservative Jews interpret the tenet metaphorically rather than literally.
Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism have altered traditional references to the resurrection of the dead ("who gives life to the dead") to refer to "who gives life to all". Conservative Judaism has retained the traditional language although some interpret it non-literally.
The notion of reincarnation, while held as a mystical belief by some, is not an essential tenet of traditional Judaism. It is not mentioned in traditional classical sources such as the Tanakh ("Hebrew Bible"), the classical rabbinic works (Mishnah
), the writings of the Geonim, or Maimonides
' 13 Principles of Faith
However, books of Kabbalah — Jewish mysticism — teach a belief in gilgul, transmigration of souls, and hence the belief is found in Hassidic Judaism, which generally regards the Kabbalah as canonical sacred texts.
Rabbis who accepted the idea of reincarnation include the founder of Chassidism, the Baal Shem Tov, Levi ibn Habib (the Ralbah), Nahmanides (the Ramban), Rabbenu Bahya ben Asher, Rabbi Shelomoh Alkabez and Rabbi Hayyim Vital. Among well known Rabbis who rejected the idea of reincarnation are Saadia Gaon, David Kimhi, Hasdai Crescas, Yedayah Bedershi (early 14th century), Joseph Albo, Abraham ibn Daud and Leon de Modena. The idea of reincarnation, called gilgul, became popular in folk belief, and is found in much Yiddish literature among Ashkenazi Jews.
- Sanders, E.P. "Paul and Palestinian Judaism". Fortress Press. (Christian perspective on Judaism)
- Wright, N.T. "The New Testament and the People of God". Fortress Press: 1992. (Christian perspective on Judaism)
- Yitzchak Blau "Body and Soul: Tehiyyat ha-Metim and Gilgulim in Medieval and Modern Philosophy", The Torah U-Madda Journal, Volume 10, 2001 (Modern Orthodox perspective)