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Madhya Pradesh

[muhd-yuh-pruh-deysh, prah-desh]

Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) (Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश, IPA , translation: Middle Province), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal. Madhya Pradesh was originally the largest state in India until November 1, 2000 when the state of Chhattisgarh was carved out. It borders the states Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. An area of 119,016 sq mi (308,252 km²).

History

Ancient

Legend has it that Lord Rama bequeathed the fort to his brother Laxmana, hence the name Bandhavgarh (Bandhavgarh National Park ) which means brother's fort.The city of Ujjain (also known as Avanti) arose as a major center in the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BC, and served as the chief city of the kingdom of Malwa or Avanti. Further east, the kingdom of Chedi lie in Bundelkhand. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India c. 320 BCE, establishing the Maurya empire (321 to 185 BCE), which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. King Ashoka's wife was said to come from Vidisha- a town north of today's Bhopal. The Maurya empire went into decline after the death of Asoka, and Central India was contested among the Sakas, Kushanas, and local dynasties during the 3rd to 1st centuries BCE. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial center of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. It was also an important Hindu and Buddhist center. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.

Northern India was conquered by the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, which became known as India's "classical age". The Vakataka dynasty were the southern neighbors of the Guptas, ruling the northern Deccan plateau from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. These empires collapsed towards the end of the 5th century.

Medieval

The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, and India broke up into smaller states. A king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. King Harsha of Thanesar reunited northern India for a few decades before his death in 647. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Paramara king Bhoj (c. 1010-1060) was a brilliant polymath and prolific writer. The Chandelas created the temple city of Khajuraho between c. 950 and c. 1050. Gond kingdoms emerged in Gondwana and Mahakoshal. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Muslim Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms reemerged, including the Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu. The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531.

Modern

Most of Madhya Pradesh came under Mughal rule during the reign of the emperor Akbar (1556–1605). Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 Mughal control began to weaken, and the Marathas began to expand from their base in central Maharashtra. Between 1720 and 1760 the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, and Maratha clans were established semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Maratha Peshwa. The Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, and the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal and Gondwana as well as Vidarbha in Maharashtra. Jhansi was founded by a Maratha general. Bhopal was ruled by a Muslim dynasty descended from Dost Mohammed Khan, an Afghan General in the Mughal army. Maratha expansion was checked at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

The British were expanding their Indian dominions from bases in Bengal, Bombay, and Madras, and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars were fought between 1775 and 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War left the British supreme in India. Most of Madhya Pradesh, including the large states of Indore, Bhopal, Nagpur, Rewa, and dozens of smaller states, became princely states of British India, and the Mahakoshal region became a British province, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1853 the British annexed the state of Nagpur, which included southeastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra and most of Chhattisgarh, which were combined with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces in 1861. The princely states of northern Madhya Pradesh were governed by the Central India Agency.

After the recent discovery in July 2007, of ruby ore in the region it has been overwhelmed by mining companies and individuals seeking work. This has led to a massive surge in population that has subsequently caused a reported 283% increase in crime as well as a massive outbreak of dysentery in several areas of Madhya Pradesh. A recent government report has declared parts of the region as "Overwhelmed by disease... in need of a greater military presence" The government has now taken measures to bring the area under greater control and is "currently enacting proper regulations."

After Indian independence

Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh.

Geography

Madhya Pradesh in Hindi can be translated to Central Province, and it is located in the geographic heart of India. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.

Madhya Pradesh comprises several linguistically and culturally distinct regions, including:

  • Malwa: a plateau region in the northwest of the state, north of the Vindhya Range, with its distinct language and culture. Indore is the major city of the region, while Bhopal lies on the edge of Bundelkhand region. Ujjain is a town of historical importance.
  • Nimar (Nemar): the western portion of the Narmada River valley, lying south of the Vindhyas in the southwest portion of the state.
  • Bundelkhand: a region of rolling hills and fertile valleys in the northern part of the state, which slopes down toward the Indo-Gangetic plain to the north. Gwalior is a historic center of the region.
  • Chambal: the north-western region. A mountainous region rich in red, soft, and fragile sandstone. The climate is harsh, and the area is known for murderous pirates who were active in hundreds in the late 1900s.
  • Baghelkhand: a hilly region in the northeast of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Vindhya Range.
  • Mahakoshal (Mahakaushal): the southeastern portion of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Narmada river valley and the eastern Satpuras. Jabalpur is the most important city in the region.
  • Central Vindhya and Satpura region. Which has most of the central Narmada river valley and watershed, and has the highest point in the state - Dhupgarh in Pachmarhi.

Rivers of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh represents great river basins and the watershed of a number of rivers. Catchments of many rivers of India lie in Madhya Pradesh. The Narmada (originating from Amarkantak) and Tapti (originating from Multai of Betul District) rivers and their basins divide the state in two, with the northern part draining largely into the Ganga basin and the southern part into the Godavari and Mahanadi systems. The Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the Ganga basin, with the western part of the Ganga basin draining into the Yamuna and the eastern part directly into the Ganga itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganga, flow from south to north, with the Chambal, Sipra, Kali Sind, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganga basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand Rivers, with the Son being the major tributary. This is also the junction point of the Satpura and the Vindhya ranges, with the Maikal and Kaimur Hills being the fulcrum. The forests here are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh. The Son is of great significance in that it is the largest tributary going into the Ganga on the south bank and arising out of the hills of Madhya Pradesh rather than from the Himalayas. This river and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into Ganga, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed.

The major tributary of the Ganga, the Son, arises in one of the most important watersheds in India, the Maikal hills around Amarkantak. Three of the great rivers of India, Narmada, Mahanadi and Son, are given birth to by these hills. This is also one of the few ranges in the State having a north south configuration. The Mahanadi itself, together with its tributaries such as Hasdeo, Mand and Kharun flows southeast into Orissa and converts that State into a green rice bowl. The upper Mahanadi catchment contains some of the finest forests in the State, ranging from mixed deciduous to teak, bamboo and Sal. Just as the Mahanadi flows east from the Maikal hills and the Son flows north, the mighty Narmada charts a westerly course from these very hills. The Narmada flows through a rift valley, with the Vindhyas marching along its northern bank and the Satpuras along the southern. Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Denwa and the Sonbhardra rivers. Taken in combination with its parallel sister river, the Tapti, which also flows through a rift valley, the Narmada - Tapti systems carry and enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh.

The Satpuras, in the Gawilgarh and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Indrawati, the Wainganga, the Wardha, the Pench, the Kanhan and Penganga rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari system. The Godavari is the lifeline of Andhra Pradesh, but the water which feeds it is a gift of the Central India watershed. Some of the finest sub-tropical, semi moist forests in India are to be found in the Godavari basin, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are very few virgin forests left in the country, but very fine examples of these are to be found in Bastar area along the Indrawati and in the Kanger valley in Chhattisgarh.

The importance of Central India watershed was first noted by Captain Forsyth and remarked upon in his book, "The Highlands of Central India", first published in 1889. This is what he has to state in the introductory chapter to his book, "Yet in the very center of India there exists a considerable region to which the term highlands — is strictly applicable; and in which are enormous peaks and ranges, for which the term mountain would, in any other country, be used. Several of the great rivers of India have their first source in this elevated region. And pour their water into the sea on either side of the peninsula – to the north the Son commingling with the Ganges, to the east the Mahanadi, flowing independently to the Bay of Bengal, to the south some of the principal feeders of the Godavari, and to the west the Narmada and the Tapti taking parallel courses to the Arabian Sea.

There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.

Climate

Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India it has a hot dry summer(April-June) followed by monsoon rains (July-September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 45'. It decreases from east to west. The south-eastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 70', while the western and north-western districts receive 30' or less.

Economy

Macro-economic trend

Following is a table showing trend of gross state domestic product of Madhya Pradesh at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 77,880
1985 139,050
1990 304,720
1995 478,410
2000 737,150

Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $32 billion in current prices. After partition, the new Madhya Pradesh state produces about 70% of the output of the old Madhya Pradesh state - the rest is produced by Chattisgarh.

Agriculture

This is a chart of output of major commodities of Madhya Pradesh.
Commodity National Share
Soybeans 75%
Grams 36%
Oilseeds 25%
Pulses 24%
Food grains 8%

Industry

Only one S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Madhya Pradesh viz. Ruchi Soya Industries (2005 gross income Rs.49,661 million).Many Agricultural Industries and Engineering Industries.

Minor forest produce

MFP from the forests, such as Tendu leaves used to roll bidi's, Sal seed, teak seed and lak are a major contributor to the rural economy of the state. MFP-PARC (Minor Forest Produce - Processing & Research Centre) is located in the state capital - Bhopal. MFP-PARC is a unit of M P Minor Forest Produce (Trading & Development) Co-operative Federation Limited. "Vindhya Herbals" is the brand of various ayurvedic, herbal & fruit products produced by M P MFP Federation. Apart from MFP-PARC, these products are also produced in Rehti (Sehore District), Barman (Narsinghpur District), Katni, Panna & Dewas in Madhya Pradesh. Some more processing centres are in the pipeline.

Government and politics

Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state Legislative Assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House).

The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress. Unlike many of its neighbours, Madhya Pradesh has largely a two-party system with small or regional parties not having had much success in recent elections.

In the November 2003 state elections, the BJP won an absolute majority of 173 seats, defeating the governing Congress who won just 38 seats. Other parties in the state legislature include the Samajwadi Party with 7 seats.

The current chief minister is Shivraj Singh Chauhan, who succeeded Babulal Gaur and Uma Bharti. Before the BJP won in 2003, the longtime Congress Chief Minister was Digvijay Singh.

In the 2004 Indian General Election the BJP swept the state by winning 25 of the 29 seats, while the Congress won the remaining four.

For a historical list of previous chief ministers see List of Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh

Divisions

Districts

Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 50 districts, which are grouped into ten divisions: Bhopal, Chambal, Gwalior, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Rewa, Shahdol, Sagar, and Ujjain, chindwara.

Districts: Anuppur, Alirajpur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Barwani, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal, Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Dindori, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Khandwa, Khargone, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Neemuch, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Sheopur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Singrauli, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Umaria, Vidisha.

Agro-climatic zones

Madhya Pradesh is divided into following agro-climatic zones:

Transport

Madhya Pradesh, being surrounded by land, has both Land and Air transport facilities. Buses and trains cover most of Madhya Pradesh. Recently State Government has withdrawn the State Road Transport called Rajya Parivahan Nigam.Air Transport is at Indore , Bhopal, Jabalpur, Gwalior and Khajuraoo .

Demography

Madhya Pradesh is a medley of races and tribes, castes and communities. Madhya Pradesh include primitive aborigines, as well as highly educated modern. They belong mainly to two racial groups. The people of northern area and Narmada Valley are mostly of the Aryan race, while a large portion of tribal people of south and east Madhya Pradesh. According to census of 2000, 91.1% followed Hindu religion while others are Muslim(6.40%), Jain(0.9%), Christians(0.30%), Buddhists(0.30%), and Sikhs(0.20%). The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The scheduled castes are 13.14% while scheduled tribes were 20.63%.

Ethnic groups

Languages

The predominant language of the region is Hindi. Urdu is spoken in Burhanpur, the former princely state of Sironj (Tonk), Kurwai and areas with larger Muslim populations. In Old Bhopal, a unique style of very polite (Aap janab style of Bhopali Hindi-Urdu mixed language) is spoken.

In addition to standard Hindi, several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi, and by others to be distinct but related languages. Among these languages are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli and Avadhi in Bagelkhand and the southeast. Each of these languages or dialects has dialects of its own. Other languages include Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, and Kalto (Nahali), all spoken by tribal groups. Due to rule of Marathas, Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of people.

In addition, Pashto is spoken by the large number of immigrants from Afghanistan and NWFP, Pakistan.

Culture

Heritage and architecture

Several cities in Madhya Pradesh are extraordinary for their architecture and or scenic beauty. Three sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: the Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh, Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri and Ujjain. MP being very large geographically, and the history being spread over several millennia, a developing a comprehensive picture of heritage and architecture is a monumental task.

Flora and fauna

The forests

Forest area

Madhya Pradesh is endowed with rich and diverse forest resources. Lying between lat. 21°04'N and long. 74°02' and 82°49' E, it is a reservoir of biodiversity. The geographical area of the state is 308,144 km² which constitutes 9.38% of the land area of the country. The forest area of the state is 95,221 km² constituting 31% of the geographical area of the state and 12.44% of the forest area of the country. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest, Protected Forest and Unclassified Forest", which constitute 61.7%, 37.4% and 0.9% of the forest area respectively. Per capita forest area is 2,400 m² as against the national average of 700 m²

Forest composition

Central, eastern and southern parts of the state are rich, whereas northern and western parts are deficient in forest. Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. There are four important forest types viz. Tropical Moist, Tropical Dry, Tropical Thorn , Subtropical broadleaved Hill forests. The forest area can also be classified based on the composition of forest and terrain of the area. Based on composition, there are three important forest formations namely Teak forest , Sal forest and Miscellaneous Forests. Bamboo bearing areas are widely distributed in the state. To obviate pressure on the natural forests , plantations have been undertaken in forest and non forest areas to supplement the availability of fuel wood , small timber , fodder etc. MP lost a good amount of forest recently when Chattisgarh was carved out of it, as that region was the richest reserve of forrests in MP.

Forest growing stock

The total growing stock (volume of timber / wood) is 50,000,000 m³ valued worth Rs 2.5 lakh Crores.

Natural areas

Madhya Pradesh is home to several National Parks, including Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, and Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh.

There are also a number of natural preserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh Caves, Bhedaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot and Tamia.

Tribals in Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh is dominated by the Tribal population. The differences in the tribal community, spread over in various parts of the state, is clearly seen not only on the basis of their heredity, lifestyle and cultural traditions, but also from their social, economic structure, religious beliefs and their language and speech. Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has not only been largely cut-off from the mainstream of development.

The population of Tribals in Madhya Pradesh is 122.33 lakh constituting 20.27% of the total population of Madhya Pradesh (603.85 Lakh), according to the 2001 census. There were 46 recognized Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State.

The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhariya, Halba, Kaul, Mariya, and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua and Mandla districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone,Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi and Shahdol districts 30 to 50 percent population is of tribes. Maximum population is that of Gond tribes.

Media

Dainik Bhaskar is the leading Hindi newspaper. Nai Duniya, Raj Express, Dainik Jagran and Nav Bharat are other prominent Hindi papers.

various local news paper are published from various cities.

In English, Hindustan Times Bhopal edition leads all other papers. Central Chronicle, Pioneer and Free Press have editions from Bhopal. Bhopal is a centre of Urdu journalism also and Nadeem, the oldest newspaper of the state, is published from here. Urdu Action and Haq-o-Insaf are also published. Farz, a Sindhi daily is published from Bhopal is the only Sindhi newspaper in State.

Sports

Cosco Cricket is one of the famous sport in Madhya Pradesh (most famous in sagar Division/District).

Apart from Cosco Cricket, People in Madhya Pradesh also like Football, Basket-Ball, Volley-Ball, Cycling, Swimming, Tracking, Badminton, Table-Tennis.

Below is the list of some traditional games:

1. Gulli Danda. 2. Pittu. 3. Gadha Paddh. Various awards in M.P are 1.Vikram Award 2.Vishwamitra Award 3.Eklavya Award

Further reading

  • Chishti, R̥ta Kapur, Martand Singh, and Amba Sanyal. Saris of India: Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern & Amr Vastra Kosh, 1989. ISBN 8122401872
  • Gyanendra Singh. Farm Mechanization in Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 2000.
  • Madhya Pradesh (India). The Madhya Pradesh Human Development Report 2002: Using the Power of Democracy for Development. [Bhopal: Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, 2002.
  • Parmar, Shyam. ''Folk Tales of Madhya Pradesh. Folk tales of India series, 12". New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1973.
  • Rag, Pankaj, and O. P. Misra. Masterpieces of Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Directorate of Archaeology, Archives & Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh, 2005.
  • Rag, Pankaj. Vintage, Madhya Pradesh: A Collection of Old Photographs. Bhopal: Madhya Pradesh Madhyam jointly with the Directorate of Archaeology, Archives, and Museums, 2005. ISBN 8190270273
  • Sampath, M. D., H. V. Trivedi, and Mandan Trivedi. Epigraphs of Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 2001.
  • Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad. Madhya Pradesh, a Geo-Economic Appraisal. Delhi: Abhijeet, 2004. ISBN 8188683434
  • Shah, Shampa, and Aashi Manohar. Tribal Arts and Crafts of Madhya Pradesh. Living traditions of India. Ahmedabad: Mapin Pub./in Association with Vanya Prakashan, Bhopal, 1996. ISBN 0944142710
  • Shrivastava, Divya. The Development of Scheduled Tribes in Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House, 2000. ISBN 8121206987
  • Singh, R. V. Dairy Co-Operatives and Development: A Study of Tribal Dairy Co-Operatives in Madhya Pradesh. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2006. ISBN 8178353318

Madhya Pradesh

References

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