gas, in physics, one of the three commonly recognized states of matter, the other two being solid and liquid. A substance in the gaseous state has neither definite shape nor definite volume. Like liquids, gases are fluids and assume the shape of their containers. Unlike liquids, they will expand to fill any container, regardless of its size. All gases condense into liquids or solids when sufficiently cooled or compressed (see compression; condensation; liquefaction). Most gases first liquefy, but some pass directly into the solid state (see sublimation); carbon dioxide, for example, can condense into dry ice. Some gases are extremely soluble in certain liquids, the liquid absorbing many times its own volume of gas. Some solids, by a process called adsorption, can take up many times their own volume of certain gases. The behavior of gases under various conditions of pressure, temperature, and volume is described by the various gas laws. Many of the properties of gases can be understood by considering the fact that only a small part of the volume of a gas is occupied by its atoms or molecules, which are in rapid, random motion. See kinetic-molecular theory of gases.
gas, fuel, gaseous substance that burns in air and releases enough heat to be useful as a fuel, while also remaining sufficiently stable at ordinary temperatures to permit long-term storage without deterioration or undue hazard. It is advantageous if a fuel gas is readily transportable through pipes and is easily liquefied. Practically all fuel gases meet the first condition, and some meet the second as well. Natural gas, which occurs alone and in conjunction with petroleum deposits, is an excellent fuel gas in wide commercial use. Liquefied petroleum gas is a manufactured mixture of flammable gases that is easily stored in its liquefied condition. Oil gas is a type of gas made by applying heat to various petroleum distillates. Its principal use is as a supplement to natural gas during periods of heavy demand. Coal gas may be any of a variety of gases produced by heating coal in the absence of air and driving off the volatile constituents. It is not as high in fuel value as other gases and often contains tars, light oils, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide. Producer gas is made by forcing a mixture of air and steam through burning coal or coke. Water gas, or blue gas, which burns with a bright blue flame, is made by passing steam over glowing coke.
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Gas is a city in the northwestern part of Allen County, located in southeast Kansas, in the Central United States. The population was 556 at the 2000 census, and it was estimated to be in the year . The city was named for the abundant natural gas that was found in the area.


When natural gas was discovered in Elm Township in the summer of 1898 E.K. Taylor sold 60 acres of his farm to some spelter companies and in October sub-divided the remainder into lots, which was the beginning of "Gas City". The place grew rapidly, the cheap fuel afforded by the immense supply of natural gas bringing in a number of large manufacturing plants of various kinds. In 1910 the population was 1,281, and the city had a bank, a daily and a weekly newspaper, an opera house, an international money order postoffice (first opened in August 1899) from which mail was distributed to the surrounding country by rural free delivery, several good mercantile houses, telegraph and express offices.


Gas is located at (37.923851, -95.346168). Situated along U.S. Route 54 in Elm Township, the city is about three miles east of the city of Iola (the county seat) and 2½ miles west of the city of La Harpe. The interchange between U.S. Routes 54 and 169 is about two miles west of Gas.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.0 km²), all of it land.


Gas's population was estimated to be in the year .

As of the census of 2000, there were 556 people, 217 households, and 167 families residing in the city. The population density was 735.0 people per square mile (282.5/km²). There were 234 housing units at an average density of 309.4/sq mi (118.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.60% White, 0.18% African American, 1.26% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.18% from other races, and 3.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.16% of the population.

There were 217 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.9% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.6% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 104.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,804, and the median income for a family was $38,942. Males had a median income of $25,104 versus $18,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,012. About 9.4% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over.

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