Garland

Garland

[gahr-luhnd]
Garland, Augustus Hill, 1832-99, American lawyer and politician, b. Tipton co., Tenn. He became a prominent lawyer in Arkansas and during the Civil War served in the Confederate House of Representatives (1861-64) and Senate (1864-65). After the war, he was pardoned by President Andrew Johnson. He could not practice law, however, because of a congressional act of Jan., 1865, that debarred former members of the Confederate government. This led to Ex parte Garland (1867), a Supreme Court case in which Garland successfully pleaded that since the act was an ex post facto law it was unconstitutional. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1867 but was refused his seat. As governor of Arkansas (1874-76), Garland was influential in restoring the soundness of the state's finances. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1877 to 1885 and as Attorney General from 1885 to 1889. He wrote Experiences in the Supreme Court of the United States (1898) and, with Robert Ralston, A Treatise on the Constitution and Jurisdiction of the United States Courts (1898).
Garland, Hamlin, 1860-1940, American author, b. near West Salem, Wis. He grew up in the Middle Western farmlands, the region he later wrote about in verse, stories, and autobiography. His tales, collected as Main-travelled Roads (1891), Prairie Folks (1893), and Wayside Courtships (1897), were bitter pictures of the futility of farm lives. Besides realistic novels of the prairies—A Little Norsk (1892) and Rose of Dutcher's Coolly (1895), he wrote several propagandist novels, including Jason Edwards: An Average Man (1892), urging the single tax doctrine, and A Spoil of Office (1892), supporting the Populist party. Garland is perhaps best remembered for his two autobiographical works, A Son of the Middle Border (1917) and A Daughter of the Middle Border (1921, Pulitzer Prize). He was also the author of essays, a biography of President Grant (1898), and several books on spiritualism.

See biography by J. Holloway (1960, repr. 1971).

Garland, Judy, 1922-69, American singer and film actress, b. Grand Rapids, Minn., originally named Frances Gumm. She sang in her father's theater from the age of four as one of The Gumm Sisters; she later toured in vaudeville. Beginning her film career in 1935, she endeared herself to the public in the Andy Hardy film series and in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Her later films include Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), Easter Parade (1948), A Star is Born (1954), and Judgment at Nuremburg (1960). Her first husband was the director Vincente Minnelli. Their daughter Liza Minnelli, 1946-, b. Hollywood, Calif., is also a singer, dancer, and actress. She made her Broadway debut in Flora, the Red Menace (1965; Tony Award). Minelli has appeared in a number of films, including The Sterile Cuckoo (1969), Cabaret (1972; Academy Award), New York, New York (1977), and two Arthur films (1981 and 1988). She has performed in solo nightclub appearances and has also been seen frequently on television, most notably in a televised concert with her mother at the London Palladium (1964) and in Liza with a Z (1978; Golden Globe). Garland's second daughter, Lorna Luft, 1953-, is also an actress and singer who has appeared in films, on stage, and in various performance venues. In addition, she wrote Me and My Shadows, a Family Memoir (1998).

See biographies of Garland by M. Tormé (1970), her husband M. Deans (1972), and G. Clarke (2000).

Garland, city (1990 pop. 180,650), Dallas co., N Tex., a suburb of Dallas; inc. 1891. Since World War II, Garland has grown from an agricultural community into an important center for electronics research and for the production of electronic equipment. Other manufactures include oil-field equipment, chemicals, apparel, sheet metal, and processed foods. An air force station is there. Garland remains one of the fastest growing cities in the United States.
orig. Frances Gumm

Judy Garland, 1945.

(born June 10, 1922, Grand Rapids, Minn., U.S.—died June 22, 1969, London, Eng.) U.S. singer and film actress. Born into a family of vaudeville performers, she made her stage debut at age three. She toured with her sisters until making her debut in a short film, Every Sunday (1936). She was a hit in Broadway Melody of 1938 and starred as a wholesome girlfriend in nine films with Mickey Rooney, including Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938). She became an international star as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Among her other musical hits were Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), Easter Parade (1948), and Summer Stock (1950). Her sweet but powerful voice and emotional range made her a legendary concert performer. After record-breaking engagements at the London Palladium and New York's Palace Theatre, she returned to the screen in triumph in A Star Is Born (1954), and she was acclaimed for her role in Judgment at Nuremberg (1961). Her life was troubled by broken marriages and a reliance on drugs, which led to her early death. Her daughters, Liza Minnelli (by Vincente Minnelli) and Lorna Luft, followed her to the musical stage.

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orig. Frances Gumm

Judy Garland, 1945.

(born June 10, 1922, Grand Rapids, Minn., U.S.—died June 22, 1969, London, Eng.) U.S. singer and film actress. Born into a family of vaudeville performers, she made her stage debut at age three. She toured with her sisters until making her debut in a short film, Every Sunday (1936). She was a hit in Broadway Melody of 1938 and starred as a wholesome girlfriend in nine films with Mickey Rooney, including Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938). She became an international star as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Among her other musical hits were Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), Easter Parade (1948), and Summer Stock (1950). Her sweet but powerful voice and emotional range made her a legendary concert performer. After record-breaking engagements at the London Palladium and New York's Palace Theatre, she returned to the screen in triumph in A Star Is Born (1954), and she was acclaimed for her role in Judgment at Nuremberg (1961). Her life was troubled by broken marriages and a reliance on drugs, which led to her early death. Her daughters, Liza Minnelli (by Vincente Minnelli) and Lorna Luft, followed her to the musical stage.

Learn more about Garland, Judy with a free trial on Britannica.com.

City (pop., 2000: 215,768), northern Texas, U.S. Bordering Dallas, it was founded when two rival railroad communities, Duck Creek and Embree, were consolidated in 1887. Its economy is industrialized and supplemented by the farm crops grown on the nearby Blacklands Belt. Manufactures include electronic equipment, chemicals, and scientific instruments.

Learn more about Garland with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Garland is a town in Miller County, Arkansas, United States. It is part of the Texarkana, Texas - Texarkana, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 352 at the 2000 census. Nevada governor Kenny Guinn was born in Garland.

Geography

Garland is located at (33.362268, -93.715081).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.1 km² (0.8 mi²), all land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 352 people, 133 households, and 88 families residing in the town. The population density was 165.7/km² (428.6/mi²). There were 164 housing units at an average density of 77.2/km² (199.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the town was 27.84% White, 69.89% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.28% Asian, and 1.70% from two or more races. 0.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 133 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 23.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.1% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.24.

In the town the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $17,500, and the median income for a family was $20,625. Males had a median income of $24,375 versus $15,000 for females. The per capita income for the town was $9,292. About 37.6% of families and 44.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 62.5% of those under age 18 and 38.9% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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