Garibaldi

Garibaldi

[gar-uh-bawl-dee]
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 1807-82, Italian patriot and soldier, a leading figure in the Risorgimento. He remains perhaps the most popular of all Italian heroes of the Risorgimento, and a great revolutionary hero in the Western world.

In South America

Garibaldi was born at Nice and as a youth entered the Sardinian navy. Under the influence of Mazzini he became involved in an unsuccessful republican plot and fled (1835) to South America. There he gained his first experience in guerrilla warfare. He served (1836-42) the state of Rio Grande do Sul in its rebellion against Brazil and fought (1842-46) in the Uruguayan civil war, winning fame for his heroism. In Brazil he met Anita Ribeiro da Silva, whom he married in 1842.

European Campaigns

When revolution swept over Europe in 1848, Garibaldi found a new theater of action. Though a convinced republican, he joined the forces of King Charles Albert of Sardinia in the war against Austria. After the Sardinian defeat he went to Rome (1849) and, at the head of some improvised forces, fought brilliantly for Mazzini's short-lived Roman republic against the superior French forces intervening for Pope Pius IX. During his spectacular retreat across central Italy, his wife died. He was refused asylum by the king of Sardinia and went to the United States.

Garibaldi resumed his seafaring life, but in 1854 he returned to Italy and soon bought part of the island of Caprera, N of Sardinia. By then he had renounced the dream of an Italian republic and gave his support to Cavour, publicly declaring that the monarchy as represented by Victor Emmanuel II should be the basis of Italian unity. Garibaldi's popularity won many of Mazzini's republican followers to the monarchist cause. Garibaldi took part in the war of 1859 against Austria. After the Treaty of Villafranca di Verona he violently attacked Cavour and denounced the cession of Savoy and his native Nice to France.

In 1860, with Victor Emmanuel's connivance, Garibaldi embarked on the crowning enterprise of his life—the conquest of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. With 1,000 volunteers, the Red Shirts, he landed (May, 1860) in Sicily, which had rebelled against Francis II, king of the Two Sicilies, and conquered the island in a spectacularly daring campaign. He then crossed to the mainland, took Naples, and won a decisive battle on the Volturno River. Mazzini wanted to make liberated S Italy a republic, and the populace acclaimed Garibaldi as ruler, but Garibaldi himself remained loyal to Victor Emmanuel. After meeting the king at Teano, near Naples, he relinquished his conquests to Sardinia and retired to Caprera. Shortly afterward (1861) Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed king of a united Italy.

Only part of the Papal States, including Rome, remained outside the new kingdom. In 1862, Garibaldi led a volunteer corps against Rome, but the king, fearing international intervention, sent an Italian army that defeated Garibaldi at Aspromonte. Garibaldi was given a pardon.

In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 he commanded a volunteer unit, and in 1867 he was defeated by French and papal forces at Mentana while attempting once again to capture Rome. In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 he commanded a group of French and Italian volunteers and won a battle near Dijon (1871). Garibaldi was elected to the Italian parliament in 1874, but his political career was undistinguished.

Bibliography

See his autobiography (tr. 1889); biography by D. Mack Smith (1956, repr. 1969); G. M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic (1907, repr. 1971), Garibaldi and the Thousand (1909, repr. 1948), and Garibaldi and the Making of Italy (1911, repr. 1948); L. Riall, Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero (2007).

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1866.

(born July 4, 1807, Nice, French Empire—died June 2, 1882, Caprera, Italy) Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. He came under the influence of Giuseppe Mazzini in 1834, took part in a failed mutiny intended to provoke a republican revolution in Piedmont, and escaped to France. He lived in exile in South America (1836–48) and learned guerrilla warfare tactics during liberation attempts in Brazil and Uruguay. He returned to Italy in 1848 with his small band of “Red Shirts” and fought in Milan in the war of independence against Austria. After Pope Pius IX fled Rome (1848), Garibaldi for a while defended the city from the French when they attempted to reinstate papal rule. His bold retreat through central Italy made him a well-known figure. He lived in exile again until 1854, and in 1859 he led an army in another war against Austria. In 1860, with no government backing, he raised an army of about 1,000 men and attacked Sicily; by the end of his campaign, he commanded 30,000 men, with whom he seized Naples. He handed all of southern Italy over to Victor Emmanuel II and hailed him as the first king of a united Italy. With secret support from Victor Emmanuel, he led unsuccessful campaigns into the Papal States in 1862 and 1867.

Learn more about Garibaldi, Giuseppe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1866.

(born July 4, 1807, Nice, French Empire—died June 2, 1882, Caprera, Italy) Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. He came under the influence of Giuseppe Mazzini in 1834, took part in a failed mutiny intended to provoke a republican revolution in Piedmont, and escaped to France. He lived in exile in South America (1836–48) and learned guerrilla warfare tactics during liberation attempts in Brazil and Uruguay. He returned to Italy in 1848 with his small band of “Red Shirts” and fought in Milan in the war of independence against Austria. After Pope Pius IX fled Rome (1848), Garibaldi for a while defended the city from the French when they attempted to reinstate papal rule. His bold retreat through central Italy made him a well-known figure. He lived in exile again until 1854, and in 1859 he led an army in another war against Austria. In 1860, with no government backing, he raised an army of about 1,000 men and attacked Sicily; by the end of his campaign, he commanded 30,000 men, with whom he seized Naples. He handed all of southern Italy over to Victor Emmanuel II and hailed him as the first king of a united Italy. With secret support from Victor Emmanuel, he led unsuccessful campaigns into the Papal States in 1862 and 1867.

Learn more about Garibaldi, Giuseppe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Garibaldi is a city in Tillamook County, Oregon, United States. The population was 895 in 2007 according to Portland State University.

History

Garibaldi's first white resident was Charley Farwell in 1856. According to Warren Vaughan's diary, Farwell, a deckhand on the "Calumet", agreed with Captain Fishnor to be placed ashore before the "Calumet" returned to the Pacific. Farwell built a "snug house where Garibaldi is now located perhaps in expectation of becoming a bar pilot."

Daniel Bayley was the first significant property owner on this part of Tillamook Bay, having first settled here after the Civil War. Bayley built a hotel and general store on what is now known as Bay Lane. In 1867, Bayley subdivided the Bayley Park Addition and was officially granted title to the property May 15, 1869 by President Ulysses S. Grant. In 1870, he was appointed by President Grant as the area’s first postmaster in 1870 and given the duty of naming the postmark. This same year, Giuseppe Garibaldi helped unify Italy after a military career devoted to establishing democracy around the world and Bayley felt so inclined to name the post office after his hero.

Garibaldi's first school (Hobson School) was built in 1896. In 1907 the school was moved close to where it now stands between Cypress and Driftwood under the big "G". In 1926, the new high school opened so Garibaldi students no longer had to attend secondary school in Bay City. In 1954, north Tillamook County high schools were consolidated as Neah-Kah-Nie High School north of Rockaway Beach. Garibaldi High School became a grade school.

The Whitney mill was opened in 1921. The tall smoke stack, today all that remains, was constructed by the Hammond Company in 1927-28.

Garibaldi was incorporated as a City in 1946. During the 1950s the city's population increased to over 1500 with the construction of two large mills, The Oceanside Lumber Company and Oregon-Washington Plywood Corporation. The Oregon-Washington Mill closed in the late 70s. Weyerhaeuser still operates a successful hard wood mill at the Port of Garibaldi.

Geography

Garibaldi is located at (45.560281, -123.911465).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²), of which, 1.0 square miles (2.5 km²) of it is land and 0.3 square miles (0.9 km²) of it (25.95%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 899 people, 436 households, and 251 families residing in the city. The population density was 928.4 people per square mile (357.8/km²). There were 584 housing units at an average density of 603.1/sq mi (232.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.77% White, 1.78% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 2.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.33% of the population.

There were 436 households out of which 16.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.4% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.55.

In the city the population was spread out with 16.2% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 21.4% from 25 to 44, 31.3% from 45 to 64, and 25.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females there were 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,945, and the median income for a family was $37,266. Males had a median income of $30,938 versus $23,359 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,075. About 6.9% of families and 11.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.5% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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