garbage can

Garbage Can Model

The Garbage Can Model is a theory within the science of public administration that explains organizational decision making from a systemic-anarchic perspective.

Development of the Garbage Can Model

The Garbage Can model of organizational theory was developed in 1972 by Michael D. Cohen, James G. March and Johan P. Olsen.

It was developed in reference to "ambiguous behaviors", i.e. explanations/interpretations of behaviors which at least appear to contradict classical theory. The Garbage Can Model was greatly influenced by the realization that extreme cases of aggregate uncertainty in decision environments would trigger behavioral responses which, at least from a distance, appear "irrational" or at least not in compliance with the total/global rationality of "economic man" (e.g. "act first, think later"). The Garbage Can Model was originally formulated in the context of the operation of universities and their many inter-departmental communications problems.

The Garbage Can Model tried to expand organizational decision theory into the then uncharted field of organizational anarchy which is characterized by "problematic preferences", "unclear technology" and "fluid participation". "The theoretical breakthrough of the Garbage Can Model is that it disconnects problems, solutions and decision makers from each other, unlike traditional decision theory. Specific decisions do not follow an orderly process from problem to solution, but are outcomes of several relatively independent stream of events within the organization." (Richard L. Daft, 1982, p.139).

The model was based on a computer simulation coded in FORTRAN. The coding was included as an appendix in the original 1972 article , which was the first time a coding sequence appeared in a social science article.

Streams of events within the Garbage Can Model

Four of those streams were identified in Cohen, March & Olsen's original conceptualization:

Problems

Problems require attention, they are the result of performance gaps or the inability to predict the future. Thus, problems may originate inside or outside the organization. Traditionally, it has been assumed that problems trigger decision processes; if they are sufficiently grave, this may happen. Usually, however, organization man goes through the "garbage" and looks for a suitable fix, called a "solution".

Solutions

They have a life of their own. They are distinct from problems which they might be called on to solve. Solutions are answers (more or less actively) looking for a question. Participants may have ideas for solutions; they may be attracted to specific solutions and volunteer to play the advocate. Only trivial solutions do not require advocacy and preparations. Significant solutions have to be prepared without knowledge of the problems they might have to solve.

Choice opportunities

There are occasions when organizations are expected (or think they are expected) to produce behavior that can be called a decision (or an "initiative"). Just like politicians cherish "photo opportunities", organization man needs occasional "decision opportunities" for reasons unrelated to the decision itself.

Participants

They come and go; participation varies between problems and solutions. Participation may vary depending on the other time demands of participants (independent from the particular "decision" situation under study). Participants may have favorite problems or favorite solutions which they carry around with them...

Why "garbage cans"?

It was suggested that organizations tend to produce many "solutions" which are discarded due to a lack of appropriate problems. However problems may eventually arise for which a search of the garbage might yield fitting solutions.

Probably the most extreme view (namely that of organizational anarchy) of the Carnegie School. Organizations operate on the basis of inconsistent and ill-defined preferences; their own processes are not understood by their members; they operate by trial and error; their boundaries are uncertain and changing; decision-makers for any particular choice change capriciously. To understand organizational processes, one can view choice opportunities as garbage cans into which various kinds of problems and solutions are dumped. The mix of garbage depends on the mix of labeled cans available, on what garbage is currently produced and the speed with which garbage and garbage cans are removed.

References

  • Cohen, Michael D., James G. March, Johan P. Olsen A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 1. (Mar., 1972), pp. 1-25.[particularly pp.1-3 & 9-13]
  • Das TK, Teng BS, Cognitive biases and strategic decision processes: An integrative perspective, JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, 36(6) 757-778 NOV 1999
  • Kilduff M, Angelmar R, Mehra A, Top management-team diversity and firm performance: Examining the role of cognitions, ORGANIZATION SCIENCE, 11: (1) 21-34 JAN-FEB 2000
  • Ryan K. Lahti Group Decision Making within the Organization: Can Models Help?
  • March, James G. and Johan P. Olsen. Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations, 2nd edition, Bergen: Universitetsforlaget, 1979. [LB2806.M353.1979]
  • Schmid, H., Dodd, P. & Tropman, J. E. (1987). Board decision making in human service organizations, Human Systems Management, 7(2) 155-161

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