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ganga jal

Kachwaha

Rajput clan: Kachwaha
Vanshi Suryavanshi
Descended from: Koshal (later Gird)
Sub-clans: 71 sub-clans: Rajawat, Shekhawat, Sheobramhpota, Naruka, Nathawat, Khangarot, Kumbhani, Kalyanot, Banvirpota, etc.
Ruled in Dhundhar
Princely states: Narwar
Jaipur State
Alwar
Maihar
States, established by sub-clans

The Kachwaha (also spelled as Kachavāhā, Kacchavahas, Kachhawa, Kuchhwaha & Kushwaha including Kacchapghata, Kakutstha, and Kurma) are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan who ruled a number of kingdoms and princely states in India such as Alwar, Maihar, Talcher, while the largest kingom was Jaipur (Jainagara) which was founded by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in 1727. The Maharaja of Jaipur is regarded as the head of the extended Kachwaha clan.

Outside of Rajasthan Kachwahas are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, but are chiefly found in Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Muttra, Agra and Cawnpore. A number of Kachwaha adventurers from the Gwalior also emigrated to Jalaun, where settlements were established in Etawah. Kachwahas from Bulandshahr are said to have descended from Narwar, while the Kachwahas of Muzaffarnagar call themselves Jhotiyana.

Sub-clans

Overall, sub-clans of the Kachwaha number around 71. Prominent sub-clans of the Kachhawa clan include: Rajawat, Shekhawat, Sheobramhpota, Naruka, Nathawat, Khangarot and Kumbhani. Raja Prithiviraj organised his clan and accepted twelve main houses which were regarded as distinguished system. Among twelve houses nine were his sons and grandsons and three houses from his forefathers. They are known as the Bara Kotris.

There is a saying in the honour of Kachawa Rajputs-

कछवाहा री कीर्ती, सारी सदा सवाय l
जसधारी बणिया जगत, जय माता जमवाय ll

Legend and early history

The Kachhawas(Kushwaha) belong to the Suryavanshi lineage, which claims descent from the Surya (Sun Dynasty) of the ancient Kshatriyas. Specifically, they claim descent from Kusha younger of the twin sons of Rama, hero of the Ramayana, to whom patrilineal descent from Surya is in turn ascribed. Indeed, the name Kachawaha is held by many to be a patronymic derived from the name "Kusha". However, it has been suggested that Kachwaha is a diminutive of the Sanskrit conjoint word 'Kachhahap-ghata' or 'Tortoise-killer'; Tortoise in Sanskrit being Kashyapa, although there may be several connotations for the interpretation of these terms.

According to Vishnu Purana , bardic chronicles and popular tradition; Sumitra was the last king of this dynasty in Ayodhya. In the fourth century BC Mahapadma Nanda of Nanda Dynasty included Ayodhya in his empire and Kushwahas were forced to leave. Kurma was son of Sumitra thus migrated from their parental abode and established them self at the bank of the river son, where they constructed a fort called the Rohtas (Rahatas) fort.

T.H. Henley, states in his Rulers of India and the Chiefs of Rajputana (1897) that the Kachwaha clan is believed to have settled in an early era at Rohtas(Rahatas) on the son river in present-day Bihar. He notes however that their notable seats of power were Kutwar, Gwalior, Dubkhund, Simhapaniya and Narwar (Nalapura), all in present-day Madhya Pradesh. This second westwards migration to Madhaya Pradesh is said to have been initiated under Raja Nala, the legendary founder of Narwar.

James Tod, has recorded the view as being prevalent in his time, that the clan occupied Narwar in the 10th century and remained there until Narwar was captured by Parihara Rajputs in the 12th century, however local history suggests that the Kachwahas were in Narwar several centuries earlier than the date given by Tod's arbitrary view. Many historians aver that the Kacchapaghatas, like the Chandellas and Paramaras, originated as tributaries of the preceding powers of the region. They point out that it was only following the downfall, in the 8th-10th century, of Kannauj (the regional seat-of-power, following the break-up of Harsha's empire), that the Kacchapaghata state emerged as a principal power in the Chambal valley of present-day Madhya Pradesh. This view is largely supported by archaeological artefacts and Kacchapaghata coinage (minted in Gupta-fashion) discovered in Madya pradesh, as also by inscriptions of Gopasetra (Willis). It is interesting to note that according to popular legend, the rise of the Kachwahas in Madhya Pradesh is closely associated with Suraj/Surya Sen, a Kachwaha prince of the 8th century, whom is said to have been responsible for the building of Gwalior fort and the founding of that city In the oldest section of Gwalior fort there still exists a sacred pond known as the Suraj-Kund It may thus be logical that the Kachwaha rule in Chambal valley predates the dates ascribed in the Sas-Bahu inscription.

According to an inscription in the Sas-Bahu temple within Gwalior fort, Vajradaman (Vazradaman) (964-1000 AD), the successor of the Kacchapaghata ruler Laksmana (940-964 AD) "put down the rising power of the ruler of Gandhinagara (Kannauj) and his proclamation-drum resounded on the fort of Gopadri (Gwalior)." Lakshmana father of Vajradaman was son of Dhola or Salhkumar (It is thus believed that Vajradaman was grandson of Dhola or Salhkumar).

According to bardic chronicles and popular legend, Vazradaman was succeeded by his son Mangalraja. Mangalraja had two sons Kirtiraj(Kirtirai) and Sumitra. While Sumitra got Narwar in succession, Kirtiraj got Gwalior. Kirtiraj, also founded the temple city of Simhapaniya (present-day Sihonia), there he had a Shiva temple constructed to fulfil the wish of his queen Kakanwati. Built between 1015 to 1035 A.D., the Kakan Math temple is . high and rivals in splendour the temples of Khajuraho. Interestingly Simphaniya like present day Jaipur, was a flourishing center of Jainism. The affix of Pal was adopted by the Kachwaha rulers of Narwar for many centuries, and it was 8 centuries later that this epithet was changed to Singh.

After Sumitra, Madhubramh, Kanh, Devanik, and Isha Singh ruled Narwar. The Sas-Bahu inscription is dated to 1093 AD and it gives the genealogy of the ruling family up to Mahipal who died sometime before 1104 AD.

Advent of the Kachwahas in Dhundhar

Vajradamana (Vazradama) the kachhawah ruler was ruling Narawar and Gwalior in 10th century AD. He fought Mahmud Gazanavi with Anangpal Tomara I, ruler of Delhi and was killed in this battle in 1000 AD. After Vazradama, his son Mangalraja sat on the throne. Mangalraja had two sons Kirtirai and Sumitra. While Kirtirai succeeded at Gwalior, Sumitra got Narwar in succession. The Kachwaha prince Duhaladeva (popularly known by his folk name of Dulaha Raya/Duleha Rai but also known as Tejakaranj-the Bridegroom king) was son of Sodh Dev or Sodh Rai, wed a daughter of Ralhan, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer. He received Dausa, which was part of the Dhundhar region of present-day Rajasthan as dowry, its location is the territory west from the Kachwahas domain of Narwar and Gwalior. Dausa was at the time was ruled partly by the Chauhans, and partly by the Bargujar/Birgoojur Rajputs. It was also surrounded by Meenas strongholds. Following his matrimonial alliance, Raja Duhaladeva initiated his conquest of neighbouring Meenas strongholds at Manchi, which he renamed Ramgarh, this was the beginning of the clan's westwards migration into Rajasthan. The year agreed upon by most sources gives the date of this event at around 967AD. This was followed by further annexation of Khoh and other strongholds of the Bargujar Rajputs.

Todate, the 10th century, Jamwa Devi temple built by Dūhaladeva (Dulhe Rai) to commemorate his victory over the Meenas is still worshipped by the Kachhawas. Kākaladeva (popularly known as Raja Kākil Dev) further consolidated and organised the Kachhawa rule in Dhundhar. Following his suppression of the Meenas, the Birgoojurs and the Yadava Rajputs in Dhundhar, around the year 1037AD Raja Kākil Dev moved his capital from Ramgarh westwards to Amber (Ambikeshwar/Ambawati). There he built the original Fort of Amber, on the site which to the present day is known as Jaigarh fort and it is possible that he also built or expanded the Ambikeshwar Mahadev Temple. Hanutdeva came to the throne in 1129. According to bardic chronicles and local history, Hanutdeva died in a battle with the Meenas. His son Jahnadadeva (popularly known as Janad Dev ) also fought battles with Meenas. According to local tradition, the Meenas stopped Janad Dev while he was on his way to get married, thus a battle ensued and the Meenas were defeated by Janad Dev.

By the time of Pajawan (Pradhyumn Singh or Pujjuna) the son of Jahnadadeva, the Kachhawas had become the undisputed sovereign of Dhundhar, with the Meenas as their close allies, and keepers of their forts. Nevertheless they were destined to have lost most of their ancestral domain in present day Madhya Pradesh by the early 12th century, save but the area which todate constitutes the Rajawati chiefdoms that still dots the area adjoining the former Jaipur state and Madhya pradesh (being the area around Sawai Madhopur/Narwar). The original capital of the state in Dhundhar (and in Rajputana) was thus Dausa then Ramgarh, prior to the shift to Amber and Jaipur respectively.

Another alliance with the Chauhan was forged through the marriage of Pajawan with a sister of Prithviraj III of Delhi as recorded in the chronicles of the Prithviraj Raso. Raja Pradhyumn Singh or Pajawan/Pajjuna fought valiantly alongside (his brother in law), Prithviraj Chauhan. At the time of Swayamvar of Samyogita at Kannauj in 1185, Pajjuna was trusted general of Prithviraj chauhan III. When Samyogita garlanded the statue of Prithviraj Chauhan, Prithviraj came out from his refuge and took the Samyogita with him. Jaichand of Kannauj ordered his forces to pursue Prithviraj, but the forces were stopped and engaged in a battle with Pajjuna. Thus Prithviraj III was able to reach safety in his capital.

In this battle, Pajawan's three brothers Palansi, Jaitsi, and Kansi and two sons Balbhadra, Bhinvsi were killed. Pajawan is believed to have been killed in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192. Following the capture and death of Prithviraj Chauhan, Pajawan's son Malaya Si succeeded his father having fought bravely and suffered wounds in the battle with which his father and brothers lost their lives. The Kachwahas remained a threat to the neighboring Islamic Sultanate of Delhi, their kingdom also stood on major trade and (Islamic) pilgrimage routes leading to the shrines of Ajmer and the ports of Gujarat.

The successor of Malaya Si was Bijaladeva, whom in 1226 extended his matrimonial alliance through the marriage of his duaghter to Raja Veernarain Chauhan of Ranthambhore. Bijaladev was succeeded by his son Rajadeva (Rajdev). During the siege of Ranthambore by the Khilji invaders, Rajadeva is said to have given his support to Rana Hamir of Mewar. Rajadeva is also said to have added much fortifications, temples and water tanks to his capital of Amber. Another important event of this period is the disjunction of the Shekhawats and the founding of the Shekhawati territory by the great warrior Rao Shekha, the distinguished great grandson of Raja Udayakarna (Udaykarana) of Amber.

Kachwahas and the Mughals

In March 1527, Raja Prithviraj of Amber (1502-1527) supported (his father-in-law) Rana Sanga of Mewar at the Battle of Khanua, but was unable to prevent his defeat by Babur, leading to the establishment of the Mughal Empire. He also organised his family into what is known as the Bara Kothris, or the twelve patrilineal branches of the Kachwaha clan, his successor Puran Mal (1527-1534) is said to have helped Humayun's brother Hindal, in his struggle against Tatar Khan in the battle of Mandrail (1534 AD). After the death of Puran Mal his brothers Bhim, and nephews Ratan Singh, and Askaran ruled Amber for short periods.

The period of 13 years following Puran Mal's death is shrouded with mystery and controversies, intrigues and murders until Bharmal (Bhāramala/Bihārīmala) ascended the throne of Amber in 1547. Bharmal was a brother of Puran Mal, and thus another son of Prithviraj (who was killed in the battle of Khanua in 1527). He overpowered all controversies and feuds with the help of Akbar the Mughal emperor.

In February 1562, Hira Kunwar, daughter of Bharmal (1547-1573), Raja of Amber, was wed to the Mughal emperor Akbar at a grand ceremony held at the town of Sambhar, the son born through this marriage being none other than the next Mughal emperor Jahangir. This pragmatic alliance created a major shift in the balance of power within the Indian subcontinent and ushered a period of harmonious co-operation between the Rajputs and the Mughals. However, details of the marriage between Akbar and Hira Kunwar (some call her Jodhabai) remains a disputed subject.

The Kachwahas provided the Mughals some of their most distinguished generals. Raja Bhagwant Das (1575-1589) brought with him the secret of artillery production from Lahore (where he and his son Man Singh remained for many years as governor) to Amber in 1584, soon cannons began to be made at the foundry in Jaigarh Fort (including the world's largest cannon on wheels, the Jaivana ), much to the infuriation of the Mughals who kept the secret to themselves ever since they used it in the epic battles, against the Lodhis and the Rajputs.

In 1589, Bhagwant Das was succeeded by Raja Man Singh I (1589-1614) (Akbar's Commander-in-Chief), who did much to further the establishment of Mughal rule over present Afganistan, Kabul,and Rajputana in the west to Orissa and Cooch Behar in the east. From Kashmir in the north to southernmost parts of the Deccan, and also served them in various other capacities, notably as governor of Kabul and Bengal. Man Singh’s monumental fortress in Kabul, was used as headquarters by subsequent Mughal governors. Man Singh was a devotee of Krishna, he got constructed a temple of Krishna at Vrindavan and at Amber now known as "Kanak Vrindawan"(Golden Vrindawan) and many other temples at various places including Varanasi and Prayag (Allahabad). He used to listen to religious lectures of Goswami Tulsidas, the author of "Ramcharit Manas" the famous Hindu sacred book also known as Ramayan in popular language. He also brought with him the ancient cult of Kali worship together with the famous idol of Shila Devi from Jessore in present Bangladesh to Amber.

Till date, there is a holiday in Jaipur district when special offerings are paid to this Goddess on sixth day of "Navratras". Two other idols "Hanuman" and "Sanga" were also brought by Raja Man Singh I. The popular saying of Jaipurites is "Sanganer ko Sango Babo Jaipur ko Hanuman, Amer ki Shila Devi lyayo Raja Man" (The idols of Sanga at Sanganer, Hanuman at Jaipur (at Chandpole gate) and Shiladevi of Amber were brought by Raja Man Singh"). As governor of Bengal, Raja Man Singh made Rohtas, his ancestral domain in Bihar, his headquarters ; he rebuilt the fort and also built a new palace there.

Jai Singh I (1622-1667), commonly known by the title 'Mirza Raja' conferred to him by (his cousin) Shah Jehan, was one of the most prominent Mughal generals during the reigns of Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb. An accomplished statesman,scholar and diplomat and a premier noble of the empire, he forced Shivaji to sign Treaty of Purandar (1665). Interestingly, despite the fact that it was Jai Singh I who succeeded in bringing Shivaji to Aurangzeb, his son and successor Raja Ramsingh I (1667-1688) earned the lasting displeasure of Aurangzeb, who suspected him of complicity in the escape of Shivaji from Agra. Mirza Raja Jaisingh died in Vidhrbha, it has been suspected that his secretary poisoned him on instructions of the emperor. As soon as Ram Singh I, ascended the throne of Amber in 1667, Aurangzeb sent him to fight on the remote and unhealthy border of Assam, where he fought battles for many years known as the Ahom-Mughal conflicts. Having survived this post, he was sent to govern the north-western Khyber frontier where he died, at Kohat in April 1688. He was succeeded by his Grandson, Raja Bishan Singh (1689-1699), whom remained for a time the governor of Mathura. Bishan Singh suffered a fatal shot by Afghan insurgents while quelling a revolt in Kabul in 1699. Sawai Jai Singh II (1700-1743), a grandson of his namesake Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, was known to be supremely talented - politically, intellectually and on the battle field. He founded the city of Jaipur in November 1727. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the chief of Alwar (also a Kachwaha) each declared themselves independent from the Maharaja of Jaipur and annexed the eastern portion of Jaipur's territory. This period is generally characterized by internal power-struggles and constant military conflicts with the Marathas, Jats, other Rajput states, as well as the British and the Pindaris (Jaipur's former mercenary allies). Yet enough wealth remained with the clan for continuous patronage of fine forts/temples/palaces, the employment of Sanskrit, Urdu and Hindi scholars/artists as well as the continuity of lavish courtly traditions.

Formation of Jaipur state and modernity

Through the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, as various forces competed for power in India, a treaty was initially made between Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh (1803-1818) and the British in 1803 but was abolished shortly afterwards. Another treaty of alliance was signed in the last year of Sawai Jagat Singh's reign in 1818. In 1835, there was a serious disturbance in the city, after which the British government intervened; under the rule of Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II (1835-1881) the state gradually become well-governed and increasingly prosperous. Sawai Ram Singh's devotion to Shaivism earned him the nickname of 'Rishi Raj' or the Sage-King while his reign was known to his people as 'Ram rajye ek lahar' - 'a wave of the rule of Rama'(Tillotson). Under his rule, Jaipur state underwent a significant period of modernization. Jaipur got electricity and modern water supply schemes at that time.The first theatre or cinema known as "Ram Prakash" came into existence. He was extraordinary careful towards cleanliness of Jaipur. Jaipur was called Paris of India at that time. He personally inspected and did his best for the well being and modernization of his state. He also built many famous structures in Jaipur including Ramgarh Bandh,Ramniwas Bagh,Rambagh Palace, many colleges were founded during his time.

Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh II (1881-1922), G.C.S.I., G.C.V.O., was born in 1861, he was adopted through the traditional system by Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II from the thikana of Isarda, he succeeded the throne in 1882 and was distinguished for his enlightened administration. He visited England at the time of King Edward VII's coronation in 1902. It was he who started and endowed with a donation of 15 lakhs, afterwards increased to 20 lakhs, of rupees the Indian Peoples Famine Fund. The Jaipur imperial service transport corps saw service in the Chitral and Tirah campaigns.

The last ruling Maharaja of Jaipur was Sawai Man Singh II (SMS) (1922-1949), his reign spanned the period of utmost turbulence and radical transformation experienced throughout the world, as well as in India as it tumbled its way into modernity. Through his vision of a modernized Jaipur state, it was under his rule that numerous reforms were introduced in order to pave the way for a peaceful unification into the Indian Union for the benefit of his beloved subjects. In 1948, shortly after India's independence, SMS acceded the state of Jaipur to the Government of India, he then became the first Rajpramukh of Rajasthan.

Sawai Man Singh II passed away in 1970 while playing polo in England, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Sawai Bhawani Singh of Jaipur, who in Democratic India reigns as current head of the Kachhawas.

Kachwaha rulers in Dhundhar and their ruling periods

Jaipur Maharaja was the richest Maharaja amoung 600 Maharajas of India.

  • Raja Dūhaladeva
  • Raja Kākaladeva (Kakil dev)
  • Raja Naradeva
  • Raja Hunutdeva
  • Raja Jahnadadeva
  • Raja Pajjuna/ Pajwan/Pradhyumn Singh
  • Raja Malaya Si
  • Raja Bijala Dev
  • Raja Rajdeva
  • Raja Kalyana
  • Rajakula (Kuntala) (1282-1317)
  • Raja Junasi Dev (1317-1365)
  • Raja Udayakarna (1366-1388)
  • Raja Narasimha (1388-1427)
  • Raja Banabira (1427-1439)
  • Raja Uddharana (1439-1467)
  • Raja ChandraSena (1467-1503)
  • Raja Prithviraja (Raja Pritviraj) (1503-1527)
  • Raja Puranmal (1527-1536)
  • Raja Bhimasimha (1536-1537)
  • Raja Ratnasimha (1537-1548)
  • Raja Aaskaran (1548)
  • Raja Bharmal(1548-1573)
  • Raja Bhagwant Das (1573-1589)
  • Mirza Raja Man Singh I (1589-1614)
  • Amir ul-Umara Mirza Raja Shri Bhao Singh Bahadur(1614-1622)
  • Umdat ul-Umara Mirza Raja Shri Jai Singh I Bahadur(1622-1667)
  • Raja Ram Singh I Bahadur(1667-1688)
  • Raja Bishan Singh Bahadur(1689-1699)
  • Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Rajadhiraj Maharaj Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II Bahadur(1700-1743)
  • Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Ishwari Singh Bahadur(1743-1750)
  • Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Madho Singh I Bahadur(1750-1768)
  • His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Prithvi Singh II Bahadur(1768-1778)
  • His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Pratap Singh Bahadur(1778-1803)
  • His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Jagat Singh II Bahadur(1803-1818)
  • His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Jai Singh III Bahadur(1819-1835)
  • His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Sir Ram Singh II Bahadur(1835-1879)

During the reign of Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II the maharajas of Jaipur received two new titles. The Maharaja of Jaipur became a Knight when he was granted the title GCSI (Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India) and the title GCIE (Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire. From here on the and until the end of Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II's reign, the title of "Sir" was part of the official title of the Maharaja of Jaipur.

  • His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Sir Madho Singh II Bahadur(1879-1922)

Perhaps Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh II is best remembered for his two silver urns which he took to England for the coronation of King Emperor Edward VII. These urns were used to carry Ganga Jal (water from the Ganges) because it was thought that crossing the ocean was unholy. These silver urns are in display in the City Palace of Jaipur and are considered to be the largest silver objects in the world.

  • Lt. General His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Sir Man Singh II Bahadur(1922-1949)

Maharaja Man Singh II was a renowned polo player. He and his polo team won the British Open. He acceded Jaipur state into the Indian Union in 1947, and served as the Rajpramukh of Rajasthan from 1948 to 1956. Between 1964 and 1970 he served as the Indian Ambassador to Spain. He and Maharani Gayatri Devi would entertain guests such as First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in Jaipur. One of the famouse Maharajas of India.

  • His Highness Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Bhawani Singh Bahadur(Reigning but not ruling, succeeded his father in 1970)

The Bara Kothris

The twelve Kothris or "chambers" of Amber royal family were an honoured institution of the state."Bara or Barah" means twelve and "Kothris" means chambers or houses. These Bara Kothris or 12 noble houses were essentially patrilineal branches of the Kachwaha clan. Raja Prithvi Raj (1502-1527 AD) sensing feuds and to avoid them, among his sons and kinsmen recognized each major branch of his family (being his sons and kinsmen) as being a noble house in the peerage of the state. The heads of these 12 families or twelve noble men, held large baronial estates and were prominent members of the court. A seat for the each head of these was allocated in royal court. Their opinion was considered important in taking major decisions. Despite his efforts feuds could not be avoided. Prithviraj's sons fought for power after his death.Ultimately Bharmal emerged as winner, with the help of Mughal emperor Akbar.

The twelve Kothris of Amber apart from royal house of Jaipur who belong to Rajawat sub clan included:

  1. Puranmalot,
  2. Pachyanot,
  3. Nathawat,
  4. Balbhadrot,
  5. Surtanot,
  6. Khangarot,
  7. Chaturbhujot,
  8. Kalyanot,
  9. Kumbhani,
  10. Sheobramhpota,
  11. Banvirpota,
  12. Sanga Singh, was the son of Raja Prithviraj. He founded a new town known as "Sanganer", which is now Sanganer Airport. He died without heir so his estate went back to state. So their remained only eleven noble houses. But the name Bara Kotris (Twelve Noble Houses) still continued.

Thus nine of the 12 kothris of Kachawahas, came from sons and grandsons of Raja Prithviraj of Amber (1502 to 1527), one from sons of Raja Junasi(1328-1366) of Amber, one from sons of Raja Udaikaran (1366-1388) of Amber, and one from sons of Raja Banvir (1427-1439) of Amber.

Prominent Kachwahas

  • At Narawar
    • Nal -[Found the city of Nalpur or Narawar.]
    • Dhola -[He was grandson of Nal. He fell in love with princess Maru of Rajputana.The story of Dhola and Maru is very popular in Rajasthan. Ultimately married her in 921 AD at Baghera in Ajmer District]
    • Vazradama - [Vazradama was grandson of Dhola and son of Lakshman.Recaptured gwalior from Pratihar Kings. Divakar Mihir of Kashmir came to Narwar in 965 AD and praised this king.Diwakar Mihir stayed for two years five months and seventeen days at Narwar. He died in battle with Mahmud of Gazni in 1000 or 1001 CE.
    • Mangal Raja -[son of Vazradama,Inscriptions of Sas Bahu temple praises this king.]
  • At Amber
    • Duhaladeva -[He was son of Sodh Deva or Sodhrai King of Narwar.He got some areas as dowry and won rest near Dausa.Established rule of Kachawas in Dhundar.]
    • Kakaladeva -[Won Amber and built a fort there. Shifted capital to Amber.]
    • Pradhyumn or Pajjuna -[Was trusted general of Prithviraj Chauhan III.Fought 64 battles in his life. Killed in 1192. He is also believed to have defeated the army of Muhammad Ghori many times prior to the battle of Tarain.]
    • Malayasi Dev -[He was also great warrior suffered many wounds in a battle with Jaichand of Kannauj but survived.]
    • Udayakarna-[The prominent Kachwaha sub clans came from Udaikaran. One of his sons Peepaji became a saint and worshiped as local deity mainly in Jamwa Ramgarh area. He had seven sons excluding Peepaji.1:Narsingh,2:Barsingh,3:Balaji,4:Sheobramh,5.Patal 6.Peethal and 7.Napa.]
    • Prithviraj of Amber -[He was son in law of Rana Sanga of Mewar,He fought at the Battle of Khanua and was killed in this battle.He organised his clan into twelve Kothris which was a system of recognition in the court of ruler of Amber or Jaipur.The system formally continues till now.]
    • Raja Bharmal of Amber
    • Raja Bhagwant Das
    • Bhagwan Das- He was younger brother of Raja Bhagwant Das and a brave man.Given jagir of Lawan.His descendants are known as Bankawat.He was addressed as Banka Raja by Akbar and also known as Madho Singh Kachwaha.
    • Raja Man Singh I
    • Mirza Raja Jai Singh I
    • Mirza Raja Ramsingh I
  • At Jaipur
    • Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II-[He was great statesman.He found the new town of Jaipur near his ancestral capital Amber, named after him.It was the first planned city in India.He was also responsible for establishment of "Bharatpur" as state. He found the city of Jaipur.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiabilitytronomy. He established four observataries in India,at Delhi, Jaipur, Varanasi, and Ujjain.It was to study movements of stars.He was influenced with Europeans and given a jagir to Portuguese astronomers, the name of village was "Benar".Which is known as railway station known as "Nindar Benar" now.
    • Rao Zorawar Singh (He was Meerbakhsi and head of generals in the army of Sawai Jaisingh.In present Jaipur northern gate of Jaipur is named after him.)
    • Maharaja Sawai Isrisingh
    • Maharaj Sawai Madhosingh I
    • Maharaja Sawai Pratapsingh
    • Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II
    • Maharaja SawaiMadho Singh II
    • Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II
    • Rajmata Gayatri Devi
  • At other places
    • Rao Shekha ji -[Great-grandson of Raja Udaikaran(1366-1388) of Amber. Fought many battles and won many. He established rule over new area in the north of Amber which is now known as Shekhawati. The area consists of Seekar and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan.His descendants ruled this area before merger of Jaipur state in Rajasthan.His descendants are known as Shekhawat Rajputs.]
    • Ramchandra I of Kashmir
    • Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir
    • Maharaja Gulab Singh
    • Pratap Singh of Alwar
    • Maharaja Dr Rajeshwar Singh s/o Maharana Sir Jagdish Singh Kachwaha
  • In Modern India
    • Maharaja Brigadier Sawai Bhawani Singh of Jaipur - [Awarded Mahveer Chakra. (Rajawat sub clan)]
    • Bhairon Singh Shekhawat - [Vice President of India. (Shekhawat sub clan)]
    • Dr.Karan Singh of Kashmir - [Ex Cabinet Minister of India. (Jamwal sub clan)]
    • Admiral V.S. Shekhawat - [Ex chief of Indian Navy. (Shekhawat sub clan)]
    • Admiral Madhvendra Singh - [Ex chief of Indian Navy. (Nathawat sub clan)]
    • Piru Singh - [Awarded Param Veer Chakra. (Shekhawat sub clan)]
    • Zorawar Singh Shekhawat - [Awarded Mahaveer Chakra. (Shekhawat sub clan)]
    • Lt.Col. Raghubeer Singh - [Awarded Mahaveer Chakra. (Rajawat sub clan)]
    • Dr.Vijay Singh P.Kachwaha (New Delhi), Ex-Senior Advisor, United Nations, New York, USA.,Mandore,Jodhpur
    • Late Shri Ranjeet Singh Kachwaha (New Delhi), Ex-CEO, Fertilizer Corporation of India.
    • Shri Mahendra Singh Kachwaha, Ex-Chief Engineer, P.H.E.D.Rajasthan & Ex-Chairman, Pollution Control Board, Rajasthan.
    • Bishan Singh Shekhawat(Renowned Journalist and Social Worker)
    • Kripal Singh Shekhawat
    • Mr. Surendra Singh. Cabinet Secretary of India, 1994-1996. Executive Director, World Bank, 1996-1999
    • Padamshree Rana Moti Singh. Ex Punjab Congress Party President. Padamshree award in best farming seed. (Ghorewaha Branch of Punjab)

Notes

Mr. Surendra Singh. Cabinet Secretary of India 1995-1996, Executive Director World Bank, 1996-1999 (Kachwaha Prominent)

References

  • Bayley C. (1894) Chiefs and Leading Families In Rajputana
  • Hendley T. H. (1897) Rulers of India and the Chiefs of Rajputana
  • Henige, David (2004). Princely states of India;A guide to chronology and rulers
  • Jyoti J. (2001) Royal Jaipur
  • Krishnadatta Kavi, Gopalnarayan Bahura(editor) (1983) Pratapa Prakasa, a contemporary account of life in the court at Jaipur in the late 18th century
  • Khangarot,R.S., and P.S. Nathawat (1990). Jaigarh- The invincible Fort of Amber
  • Topsfield, A. (1994). Indian paintings from Oxford collections
  • Tillotson, G. (2006). Jaipur Nama, Penguin books
  • Willis Michael D. (1997). Temples of Gopaksetra: A Regional History of Architecture and Sculpture in Central India Ad 600-900

External links

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