Definitions

Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Γάμμα) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Gimel . Letters that arose from Gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Ge Г and Ghe Ґ.

In Modern Greek, it represents either a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or a voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/. In Ancient Greek, it represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. Before velars, it represents a velar nasal /ŋ/ in Modern as well as Ancient Greek, and a double gamma represents a prenasalized voiced velar stop (/ŋɡ/).

## Gamma combinations

The gamma can be combined with other letters or itself.

• A double gamma (γγ) is pronounced like the ng in "jumping"
• A gamma with xi (γξ) is pronounced roughly like the nx in "Sphinx"
• (γχ) is pronounced like the nkh in "ankh"
• A gamma combined with kappa (γκ) is pronounced like the nk in "banker"

## Use as a symbol or a term

Gamma is often used to denote a variable in mathematics and physics. In certain areas it has a specific meaning, such as representing gamma radiation in nuclear physics and the Lorentz factor in theory of relativity. In mathematics, there is a gamma function (usually written as Γ-function.)