Definitions

galena

galena

[guh-lee-nuh]
galena or lead glance, lustrous, blue-gray mineral crystallizing usually in cubes, sometimes in octahedrons. It is the most important ore and the principal source of lead. It consists of lead sulfide, PbS, but frequently contains silver (it is mined for this metal in some localities) and other accessory metals. It is widely distributed throughout the world, occurring in veins and in bedded deposits, in Missouri, Idaho, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Utah in the United States (leading producer of lead) and in Australia, Canada, England, France, and Mexico. Galena crystals were once much used in radio "crystal" sets.
or lead glance

Gray lead sulfide (PbS), the chief ore mineral of lead. One of the most widely distributed sulfide minerals, it occurs in many types of deposits and in many localities. In the U.S., galena is mined principally in the Mississippi River Valley. Galena often contains silver and so is often mined for that metal as well as for lead. Other commercially important minerals that frequently occur in close association with galena are antimony, copper, and zinc.

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Galena is the largest city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U.S. state of Alaska. At the 2000 census the population was 675.

History

The Koyukon Athabascans had seasonal camps in the area and moved as the wild game migrated. In the summer many families floated on rafts to the Yukon River to fish for salmon. There were 12 summer fish camps located on the Yukon River between the Koyukuk River and the Nowitna River. Galena was established in 1918 near an Athabascan fish camp called Henry's Point. It became a supply and point for nearby lead ore mines that opened in 1918 and 1919.

In 1920, Athabascans living upriver at Louden began moving to Galena to sell wood to steamboats and to work hauling freight for the mines. A school was established in Galena in the mid-1920s. In World War II a military air field was built adjacent to the civilian airport, and the two facilities shared the runway and flight line facilities. This air field was designated Galena Air Force Station shortly after the split of the United States Air Force from the United States Army, which occurred as a result of the National Security Act of 1947. During the 1950s, the construction of additional military facilities at Galena and the nearby Campion Air Force Station, in support of Galena's mission as a forward operating base under the auspices of the 5072nd Air Base Group, headquartered at Elmendorf Air Force Base, near Anchorage, provided improvements to the airport and the local infrastructure, causing economic growth for the area. Galena Air Force Station closed in 1993, following the end of the Cold War, but it remains in use effectively as a forward operating location that is used occasionally by the military. This use has recently come under scrutiny by the Base Realignment and Closure Committee

There were floods in 1945 and 1971. Because of the floods, a new townsite, called New Town, was chosen at Alexander Lake, about 2 1/2 km (1 1/2 miles) east of the original townsite. The city offices, the health clinic, schools, store, and more than 150 homes were constructed at New Town.

Galena has three schools. Galena City School is primarily for local K-12 students, and the vocational Galena Interior Learning Academy is a boarding school which draws students from around the state. The Galena boys' and girls' basketball teams were regional champions from 2004 to 2007. The boy's basketball team was state champion in 2008. Galena's third school is Interior Distance Education of Alaska, a state-wide homeschool support program that serves 3,500 students across the state. It is the biggest school (of any kind) in Alaska.

Galena is inaccessible by road, relying on river cargo in the brief summer for the bulk of its needs. This means the city must store large volumes of fuel oil. In 2004 Galena's City Council tentatively accepted a proposal from Toshiba Corporation to build the Galena Nuclear Power Plant, a small self-contained nuclear power plant. The demonstration plant, the prototype for a line which Toshiba hopes to sell to similar communities in the US and Canada, would (if built) be the first civilian nuclear plant in Alaska; Fort Greely, Alaska, had a small military SM-4 reactor until the early 1970s.

Geography

Galena is located at (64.740643, -156.885462).

Galena is located on the north bank of the Yukon River, 72 km (45 miles) east of Nulato. The Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is southwest of Galena.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.0 square miles (62.1 km²), of which, 17.9 square miles (46.3 km²) of it is land and 6.1 square miles (15.8 km²) of it (25.41%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 675 people, 216 households, and 149 families residing in the city. The population density was 37.8 people per square mile (14.6/km²). There were 259 housing units at an average density of 14.5/sq mi (5.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 30.22% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 63.41% Native American, 1.04% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 4.44% from two or more races. 1.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 216 households out of which 49.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.0% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.44.

In the city the population was spread out with 37.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 4.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 121.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 123.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $61,125, and the median income for a family was $70,250. Males had a median income of $46,563 versus $37,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,143. About 1.3% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.4% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.

Trivia

  • In the video game Metal Gear Solid, two F-16's take off from Galena AFB to provide Solid Snake with air support early on in the game.

Galena is also mentioned in the film "War Games", as a point from which the US was to launch F-16s.

External links

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