Organic compound, a monosaccharide, chemical formula C6H12O6. It is usually found in nature combined with other sugars, for example, in lactose, in polysaccharides, and in glycolipids, carbohydrate-containing lipids that occur in the brain and other nervous tissues of most animals. It has uses in organic synthesis and in medicine.
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Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose. It is found in hemicellulose and can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis. Galactose solubility in water is 68.30 grams per 100 grams of water at 20–25° C.
There are some ongoing studies which suggest that galactose may have a role in treatment of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (a kidney disease resulting in kidney failure and proteinuria). This effect is likely to be a result of binding of galactose to FSGS factor.
galacto- uridyl phosphogluco-
kinase transferase mutase
gal --------> gal 1 P ------------------> glc 1 P -----------> glc 6 P
|Galactosemia||Galactokinase||Causes cataracts and mental retardation. If a galactose-free diet starts sufficiently early, the cataracts will regress without complications however neurological damage is permanent.|
|UDPgalactose-4-epimerase deficiency||UDPgalactose-4-epimerase||Is extremely rare (only 2 reported cases). It causes nerve deafness.|
|Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency||Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase||Is the most problematic, as galactose-free diets do not have considerable long-term effects.|