In engineering and its various subdisciplines, acceptance testing is black-box testing performed on a system (e.g. software, lots of manufactured mechanical parts, or batches of chemical products) prior to its delivery. In some engineering subdisciplines, it is known as Functional testing, black-box testing, release acceptance, QA testing, application testing, confidence testing, final testing, validation testing, usability testing, or factory acceptance testing.
In most environments, acceptance testing by the system provider is distinguished from acceptance testing by the customer (the user or client) prior to accepting transfer of ownership. In such environments, acceptance testing performed by the customer is known as beta testing, user acceptance testing (UAT), end user testing, site (acceptance) testing, or field (acceptance) testing.
Acceptance Tests/Criterion (in Agile Software Development) are usually created by business customers and expressed in business domain languages. These are high level tests to test the completeness of a user story or stories 'played' during any sprint/iteration. These tests are created ideally through collaboration between business customers, business analysts, testers and developers, however the business customers (product owners) are the primary owners of these tests. As the user stories pass their acceptance critera, the business owners can be sure of the fact that the developers are progressing in the right direction about how the application was envisaged to work and so its essential that these tests include both business logic tests as well as UI validation elements (if need be).
Acceptance test cards are ideally created during sprint planning or iteration planning meeting, before development begins so that the developers have a clear idea of what to develop. Sometimes (due to bad planning!) acceptance tests may span multiple stories (that are not implemented in the same sprint) and there are different ways to test them out during actual sprints. One popular technique is to mock external interfaces or data to mimick other stories which might not be played out during a iteration (as those stories may have been relatively lower business priority). A user story is not considered complete until the acceptance tests have passed.
The objective is to provide confidence that the delivered system meets the business requirements of both sponsors and users. The acceptance phase may also act as the final quality gateway, where any quality defects not previously detected may be uncovered.
A principal purpose of acceptance testing is that, once completed successfully, and provided certain additional (contractually agreed) acceptance criteria are met, the sponsors will then sign off on the system as satisfying the contract (previously agreed between sponsor and manufacturer), and deliver final payment.
Users of the system perform these tests, which developers derive from the client's contract or the user requirements specification.
Test designers draw up formal tests and devise a range of severity levels. It is preferable that the designer of the user acceptance tests not be the creator of the formal integration and system test cases for the same system, however there are some situations where this may not be avoided. The UAT acts as a final verification of the required business function and proper functioning of the system, emulating real-world usage conditions on behalf of the paying client or a specific large customer. If the software works as intended and without issues during normal use, one can reasonably infer the same level of stability in production. These tests, which are usually performed by clients or end-users, are not usually focused on identifying simple problems such as spelling errors and cosmetic problems, nor show stopper bugs, such as software crashes; testers and developers previously identify and fix these issues during earlier unit testing, integration testing, and system testing phases.
The results of these tests give confidence to the clients as to how the system will perform in production. There may also be legal or contractual requirement for acceptance of the system.
The customer specifies scenarios to test when a user story has been correctly implemented. A story can have one or many acceptance tests, whatever it takes to ensure the functionality works. Acceptance tests are black box system tests. Each acceptance test represents some expected result from the system. Customers are responsible for verifying the correctness of the acceptance tests and reviewing test scores to decide which failed tests are of highest priority. Acceptance tests are also used as regression tests prior to a production release. A user story is not considered complete until it has passed its acceptance tests. This means that new acceptance tests must be created for each iteration or the development team will report zero progress.
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