The ilium is the largest and upper most part, the ischium is the posterior-inferior (back-lower) part, and the pubis is the anterior (front) part of the hip bone. The two hip bones are joined anteriorly at the symphysis pubis and posteriorly to the sacrum. The pelvis incorporates the socket portion of the hip joint (the acetabulum) for each leg (in bipeds) or hind leg (in quadrupeds). It forms the lower limb (or hind-limb) girdle of the skeleton.
There are four main types of pelvis
In humans, biiliac width is an anatomical term referring to the widest measure of the pelvis between the outer edges of the upper iliac bones.
Biiliac width has the following common synonyms: pelvic bone width, biiliac breadth, intercristal breadth/width, bi-iliac breadth/width and biiliocristal breadth/width.
In the average adult female, it measures 28 cm (11 in). It is best measured by anthropometric calipers (an anthropometer designed for such measurement is called a pelvimeter). Attempting to measure biiliac width with a tape measure along a curved surface is inaccurate.
The biiliac width measure is helpful in obstetrics because a pelvis that is significantly too small or too large can have obstetrical complications. For example, a large baby and/or a small pelvis often lead to a caesarean section.
It is also used by anthropologists to estimate body mass.
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