Technique of obtaining an impression of a raised, incised, or textured surface by placing a piece of paper over it and rubbing it with a soft pencil or crayon. Brass rubbings taken from gravestones and funerary monuments are obtained in this way. Max Ernst pioneered the technique in the 20th century. It was much favoured by the Surrealists, since it provided a point of departure for a painting or collage expressing the imagery of the subconscious.
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