Fredericksburg

Fredericksburg

[fred-riks-burg, fred-er-iks-]
Fredericksburg. 1 Town (1990 pop. 6,934), Gillespie co., S central Texas, in the Texas Hill Country near the Pedernales River; inc. 1928. Located in an agricultural (cattle, peaches, wine, lavender) and quarrying (granite, sand, gravel) region, the city produces animal feed, processed foods, and millwork. Tourism is important, with visitors drawn by the architecture, customs, and language that still recall the German settlers of 1846 and by hunting and fishing nearby. The National Museum of the Pacific War, Pioneer Museum, and Bauer Toy Museum are there; Admiral Chester Nimitz was born in Fredericksburg. Enchanted Rock State Natural Area is to the north; the LBJ Ranch, part of the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park is to the east. 2 Independent city (1990 pop. 19,027), N Va., on the Rappahannock River, midway between Washington, D.C., and Richmond; settled 1671, laid out 1727, inc. as a town 1781, as a city 1879. A city filled with historic interest, Fredericksburg attracts tourists. It is also a farm trade center with some light industry. Historic buildings include the home of Mary Washington (1772-89), the mother of George Washington; "Kenmore," the home of George Washington's sister; the Rising Sun Tavern (c.1760); the law office of James Monroe; and the home of John Paul Jones. Fredericksburg is the seat of Mary Washington College. Nearby are Wakefield (Washington's birthplace), Ferry Farm (the site of his boyhood home), and Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial National Military Park (see National Parks and Monuments, table), commemorating the Civil War battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Spotsylvania Courthouse (see Wilderness campaign).
Fredericksburg, battle of, in the Civil War, fought Dec. 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. In Nov., 1862, the Union general Ambrose Burnside moved his three "grand divisions" under W. B. Franklin, E. V. Sumner, and Joseph Hooker to the north side of the Rappahannock River opposite Fredericksburg; his objective was Richmond. Delay in bringing up pontoons prevented Burnside from seizing the heights on the south bank immediately. Robert E. Lee, having anticipated the move, soon confronted him from those heights with James Longstreet's 1st Corps, which soon was joined by Stonewall Jackson's 2d. The Federals crossed on Dec. 11-12 and attacked Lee on Dec. 13. After Jackson had repulsed Franklin's attack on the Confederate right, Burnside ordered Sumner to storm Longstreet's impregnable position on Marye's Heights. Successive charges brought death to droves of courageous Union troops. Burnside's subordinates protested against renewing the foolhardy assaults, and on Dec. 15 the Federals made an undisturbed withdrawal to the north bank. Union losses, more than twice the Confederate, were over 12,000. The defeat caused profound depression throughout the North.

See E. J. Stackpole, Drama on the Rappahannock (1957); V. E. Whan, Jr., Fiasco at Fredericksburg (1961); J. Luvaas and H. W. Nelson, The U.S. Army Guide to the Battles of Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg (1989).

Fredericksburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is located 50 miles south of Washington, D.C., and 58 miles north of Richmond. As of the 2000 census, the city had a population of 19,279. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Fredericksburg with neighboring Spotsylvania County for statistical purposes. It is a part of the Washington Metropolitan Area.

A sizable part of Fredericksburg and its side of the Washington Metropolitan Area commute by car, bus, and rail to Fairfax, Prince William, and Arlington Counties as well as Washington, D.C. This has led to a long-standing debate in the area over whether or not Fredericksburg has become a part of Northern Virginia culturally, with strong arguments on both sides.

History

Located on the Rappahannock River near the head of navigation at the fall line, Fredericksburg developed as the frontier of colonial Virginia shifted west out of the coastal plain. The land on which the city was founded was part of a tract patented in 1671. The Virginia General Assembly established a fort on the Rappahannock in 1676, just below the present-day city. In 1714, Lt. Gov. Alexander Spotswood sponsored a German settlement called Germanna on the Rapidan River, a tributary of the Rappahannock upstream from the future site of the city, and led an expedition westward over the Blue Ridge Mountains in 1716.

As interest in the frontier grew, the colonial assembly responded by forming a new county named Spotsylvania (after the governor) in 1720 and establishing Fredericksburg in 1728 as a port for the county, of which it was then a part. Named for Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of King George II, the colonial town's streets bore the names of members of the royal family. The county court was moved to Fredericksburg in 1732 and the town served as county seat until 1780 when the courthouse was moved closer to the county center. Fredericksburg was incorporated as a town, with its own court, council, and mayor, in 1781, and received its charter as an independent city in 1879. The city adopted the city manager/council form of government in 1911.

The city has close associations with George Washington, whose family moved to Ferry Farm in Stafford County just off the Rappahannock opposite Fredericksburg in 1738. Washington's mother Mary later moved to the city, and his sister Betty lived at Kenmore, a plantation house then outside the city. Other significant early residents include the Revolutionary War generals Hugh Mercer and George Weedon, naval war hero John Paul Jones, and future U.S. president James Monroe.

During the 19th century Fredericksburg sought to maintain its sphere of trade but with limited success, promoting the development of a canal on the Rappahannock and construction of a turnpike and plank road to bind the interior country to the market town. By 1837, a north-south railroad, which became the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad, linked the town to Richmond, the state capital, but a much-needed railroad joining the town to the farming region to the west remained unfinished until after the Civil War.

During the American Civil War, Fredericksburg gained strategic importance due to its location midway between Washington and Richmond, the opposing capitals of the Union and the Confederacy. During the battle of Fredericksburg, December 11–15, 1862, the town sustained significant damage due to bombardment and looting at the hands of Union forces. A second battle was fought in and around the town on May 3 1863, in connection with the Chancellorsville campaign (April 27 1863May 6 1863). The battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House were fought nearby in May 1864.

After the war, Fredericksburg recovered its former position as a center of local trade and slowly grew beyond its prewar boundaries. The University of Mary Washington was founded here in 1908 as the State Normal and Industrial School for Women. Adopting the name of Mary Washington College in 1938, the college was for many years associated with the University of Virginia as a women’s liberal arts college. The college became coeducational in 1970 and is now independent of UVA. Recently the College changed names from Mary Washington College to The University of Mary Washington. A separate campus for graduate and professional studies is located in suburban Stafford County.

Today Fredericksburg is the commercial hub of a rapidly growing region in north central Virginia. Despite recent decades of suburban growth, reminders of the area’s past abound. A 40-block national historic district embraces the city’s downtown area and contains more than 350 buildings dating to the 18th and 19th centuries. Notable homes include Kenmore, home of Washington’s sister Betty, and the Mary Washington House, where his mother spent her final years. The historic district draws crowds of tourists to Fredericksburg during the summer months.

Other historic buildings and museums include the late 18th century Rising Sun Tavern, Hugh Mercer apothecary shop, and the James Monroe law office museum. Significant public buildings include the 1852 courthouse designed by James Renwick, whose works include the Smithsonian Institution’s castle building in Washington and St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City, and the 1816 town hall and market house. The latter building now houses a local history museum and cultural center.

Nearby points of interest include George Washington Birthplace National Monument, located 38 miles to the east in Westmoreland County, and the Ferry Farm historic site in Stafford County where Washington spent his boyhood across the river from Fredericksburg. The historic community of Falmouth lies across the Rappahannock to the north and includes the historic house Belmont, home of American artist Gari Melchers.

The area’s Civil War battles are commemorated in Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial National Military Park. Formed by an act of Congress in 1927, the national military park preserves portions of the battlefields of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness, and Spotsylvania Court House. The Fredericksburg National Cemetery, also part of the park, is located on Marye’s Heights on the Fredericksburg battlefield and contains more than 15,000 Union burials from the area’s battlefields.

The power chord of modern guitar was first developed by Link Wray here in 1958 during the first improvisation of the instrumental piece Rumble, a single released by Wray & His Ray Men.

On September 28, 2008, on the University of Mary Washington campus, United States Senator and Presidential candidate Barack Obama and Senator Joe Biden held a campaign rally that drew roughly 26,000 supporters.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.5 square miles (27.2 km²). None of the area is covered with water. The city is part of the boundary between the Piedmont and Tidewater regions, and as such is located on the fall line, as evidently seen on the Rappahannock River. US-1, US-17, and I-95 all pass through the city, which is located approximately 50 miles from Washington, D.C.

It is bounded on the north and east by the Rappahannock River; across the river is Stafford County; and is bounded on the south and west by Spotsylvania County.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 19,279 people, 8,102 households, and 3,925 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,833.0 people per square mile (707.6/km²). There were 8,888 housing units at an average density of 845.0/sq mi (326.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 73.18% White, 20.41% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 1.51% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.56% from other races, and 1.95% from two or more races. 4.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,102 households out of which 21.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.8% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.6% were non-families. 39.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.81.

In the city the population was spread out with 17.8% under the age of 18, 23.8% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,585, and the median income for a family was $47,148. Males had a median income of $33,641 versus $25,037 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,527. 15.5% of the population and 10.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 19.9% of those under the age of 18 and 8.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Points of interest

Media

Fredericksburg's daily newspaper is The Free Lance-Star. The Free Lance was first published in 1885, and competed with two twice-weekly papers in the city during the late 19th century, the Fredericksburg News and The Virginia Star. While the News folded in 1884, the Star company began publishing the Daily Star in 1893. In 1900, the two companies merged, with both newspapers continuing publication until 1926, when they merged under the present title. Since that time, the Free Lance–Star has been owned and operated by members of the Rowe family of Fredericksburg.

Fredericksburg and the nearby region have several radio stations, including (on the FM dial) WJYJ (90.5, Christian), WFLS (93.3, country), WGRQ (95.9, "Rockin' Oldies"), WWUZ (96.9, classic rock), WWVB (99.3, rhythmic contemporary ), and WBQB ("B-101.5", adult contemporary). Fredericksburg AM stations include WFVA (1230, news/talk) and WYSK (1350, Spanish-language). WFLS, WWUZ and WYSK are owned by the Free Lance–Star Company. In 2001, the Arbitron media service began listing the Fredericksburg area as a nationally rated radio market. As of the fall of 2005, the area ranked 154th out of 297 markets surveyed, with a total market population of more than 280,000. Large broadcast companies like Clear Channel Communications and Cumulus Broadcasting are not active in the local market, and almost all of its stations remain locally or regionally owned.

Transportation

Fredericksburg is traversed by a series of rural and suburban four lane highways and a multitude of small two lane roads. Among the major arterial roads is U.S. Route 1, providing north-south transportation from the region to Stafford, Washington D.C., and points beyond. Route 3 Plank Road is a major east-west route that connects downtown Fredericksburg (via the Blue and Gray Parkway bypass), southern Stafford County, and Route 301 with the large shopping centers Spotsylvania Town Center and Central Park, and eventually Culpeper where it meets Route 29 and Route 15. Most of Fredericksburg's traffic flow is to or from the north (Washington D.C. metropolitan area) during peak commuting hours, primarily via Interstate 95 and US-1. The US-1 bridge over the Rappahannock River is often a traffic bottleneck. Commuters also use the Virginia Railway Express rail service to Washington. FRED is a recently started bus service in Fredericksburg which serves most area communities, retail shopping centers, two VRE stations, and downtown Fredericksburg.

Notable residents and natives

Sister cities

References

External links

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