Foundry

Foundry

[foun-dree]

A foundry is a factory which produces metal castings from either ferrous or non-ferrous alloys. Metals are turned into parts by melting the metal into a liquid, pouring the metal in a mold, and then removing the mold material or casting. The most common metal alloys processed are aluminum and cast iron. However, other metals, such as steel, magnesium, copper, tin, and zinc, can be processed.

The people who work in the foundry making molds and pouring castings traditionally worked moving sand extensively, and thus were affectionately called sandrats.

Melting

In this casting process a pattern is made in the shape of the desired part. This pattern is made out of wood, plastic or metal. Simple designs can be made in a single piece or solid pattern. More complex designs are made in two parts, called split patterns. A split pattern has a top or upper section, called a cope, and a bottom or lower section called a drag. Both solid and split patterns can have cores inserted to complete the final part shape. Where the cope and drag separates is called the parting line. When making a pattern it is best to taper the edges so that the pattern can be removed without breaking the mold. The patterns are then packed in sand with a binder, which helps to harden the sand into a semi-permanent shape. Once the Sand mold is cured, the pattern is removed leaving a hollow space in the sand in the shape of the desired part. The pattern is intentionally made larger than the cast part to allow for shrinkage during cooling. Sand cores can then be inserted in the mold to create holes and improve the casting's net shape. Simple patterns are normally open on top and melted metal poured into them. Two piece molds are clamped together and melted metal is then poured in to an opening, called a gate. If necessary, vent holes will be created to allow hot gases to escape during the pour. The pouring temperature of the metal should be a few hundred degrees higher than the melting point to assure good fluidity, thereby avoiding prematurely cooling, which will cause voids and porosity. When the metal cools, the sand mold is removed and the metal part is ready for secondary operations, such as machining & plating. Sand casting is the least expensive of all of the casting processes.

Furnace

In this casting process a pattern is made in the shape of the desired part. This pattern is made out wood, plastic or metal. Simple designs can be made in a single piece or solid pattern. More complex designs are made in two parts, called split patterns. A split pattern has a top or upper section, called a cope, and a bottom or lower section called a drag. Both solid and split patterns can have cores inserted to complete the final part shape. Where the cope and drag separates is called the parting line. When making a pattern it is best to taper the edges so that the pattern can be removed without breaking the mold. The patterns are then packed in sand with a binder, which helps to harden the sand into a semi-permanent shape. Once the Sand mold is cured, the pattern is removed leaving a hollow space in the sand in the shape of the desired part. The pattern is intentionally made larger than the cast part to allow for shrinkage during cooling. Sand cores can then be inserted in the mold to create holes and improve the casting's net shape. Simple patterns are normally open on top and melted metal poured into them. Two piece molds are clamped together and melted metal is then poured in to an opening, called a gate. If necessary, vent holes will be created to allow hot gases to escape during the pour. The pouring temperature of the metal should be a few hundred degrees higher than the melting point to assure good fluidity, thereby avoiding prematurely cooling, which will cause voids and porosity. When the metal cools, the sand mold is removed and the metal part is ready for secondary operations, such as machining & plating. Sand casting is the least expensive of all of the casting processes.

Molding

Prior to pouring a casting, the foundry produces a mold. The molds are constructed by several different processes dependent upon the type of foundry, metal to be poured, quantity of parts to be produced, size of the casting and complexity of the casting. These mold processes include:

Pouring

In a foundry, molten metal is poured into molds. Pouring can be accomplished with gravity, or it may be assisted with a vacuum or pressurized gas. Many modern foundries use robots or automatic pouring machines for pouring molten metal. Traditionally, molds were poured by hand using ladles.

Shakeout

The solidified metal component is then removed from its mold. Where the mold is sand based, this can be done by shaking or tumbling. This frees the cast component, which will still be attached to the metal runners and gates - which are the channels through which the molten metal travelled to reach the component itself.

Degating

Degating is the removal of the heads, runners, gates, and risers from the casting. Runners, gates, and risers may be removed using cutting torches, band saws or ceramic cutoff blades. For some metal types, and with some gating system designs, the sprue, runners and gates can be removed by breaking them away from the casting with a hammer or specially designed knockout machinery. Risers must usually be removed using a cutting method (see above) but some newer methods of riser removal use knockoff machinery with special designs incorporated into the riser neck geometry that allow the riser to break off at the right place.

The gating system required to produce castings in a mold yields leftover metal, including heads, risers and sprue, sometimes collectively called sprue, that can exceed 50% of the metal required to pour a full mold. Since this metal must be remelted as salvage, the yield of a particular gating configuration becomes an important economic consideration when designing various gating schemes, to minimize the cost of excess sprue, and thus melting costs.

Surface Cleaning

After Degating, sand or other molding media may adhere to the casting. To remove this the surface is cleaned using a blasting process. This means a granular media will be propelled against the surface of the casting to mechanically knock away the adhering sand. The media may be blown with compressed air, or may be hurled using a shot wheel. The media strikes the casting surface at high velocity to dislodge the molding media (for example, sand) from the casting surface. Numerous materials may be used as media, including steel, iron, other metal alloys, aluminum oxides, glass beads, walnut shells, baking powder or numerous other materials. The blasting media is selected to develop the color and reflectance of the cast surface. Terms used to describe this process include cleaning, blasting, shotblasting and sand blasting of castings.

Finishing

The final step in the process usually involves grinding, sanding, or machining the component in order to achieve the desired dimensional accuracies, physical shape and surface finish.

Removing the remaining gate material, called a gate stub, is usually done using a grinder or sanding. These processes are used because their material removal rates are slow enough to control the amount of material. These steps are done prior to any final machining.

After grinding, any surfaces that requires tight dimensional control are machined. Many castings are machined in CNC milling centers. The reason for this is that these processes have better dimensional capability and repeatability than many casting processes. However, it is not uncommon today for many components to be used without machining.

A few foundries provide other services before shipping components to their customers. Painting components to prevent corrosion and improve visual appeal is common. Some foundries will assemble their castings into complete machines or sub-assemblies. Other foundries weld multiple castings or wrought metals together to form a finished product.

Advantages

The finished product of a foundry can be more geometrically complex than the product of a rolling, forging, or machining process like milling or turning. The mechanical properties of castings are equal in every direction, which makes them more suitable for multi-directional loading conditions. A foundry is the original way to produce near net shape parts. Castings frequently do not require or only require a little machining to create the finished part.

References

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See also

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