U.S. military reservation, northern Kentucky, U.S., southwest of Louisville. Occupying an area of 110,000 acres (44,510 hectares), it was established in 1918 as Camp Knox and became a permanent military post in 1932. The U.S. Gold Bullion Depository, a bombproof structure protected by elaborate security devices, was built there in 1936 to hold the bulk of the country's gold. Since 1940 it has been the U.S. Army Armor Headquarters and the site of associated training schools.
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City (pop., 1999: 94,049), capital of Martinique, West Indies. Located on the island's western coast, it was formerly called Fort-Royal and has been Martinique's capital since 1680. Until 1918, when its commercial growth began, it had an inadequate water supply, was partly surrounded by swamps, and was notorious for yellow fever; the swamps have since been drained. It is the French West Indies' largest town, chief port, and busiest commercial centre and has long sheltered the French fleet in the West Indies. Sugarcane, cacao, and rum are exported.
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City (pop., 1993: metro. area, 530,965), capital of Chad. It lies adjacent to Cameroon on the eastern bank of the Chari River, where it joins the Logone River. Founded in 1900 as Fort-Lamy, it remained a small settlement until after Chad's independence in 1960. In 1973 its name was changed to N'Djamena. It was occupied by Libyan forces in 1980–81 during the civil war that began in the 1960s. It is an important marketplace for cotton, cattle, and fish. It is the site of the nation's only university, the University of Chad (founded 1971).
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City (pop., 2000: 534,694), northern Texas, U.S. It lies on the Trinity River and constitutes the western part of the Dallas–Fort Worth urban complex. Founded in 1849 as a military outpost against Comanche raids, it was later a stopover point for cattle drives on the Chisholm Trail. It became a cattle-shipping boomtown after the railroad arrived in 1876. Oil finds brought the petroleum-refining industry to Fort Worth in the 1920s, and aircraft manufacturing, which began there during World War II, has expanded to include aerospace and electronic equipment. Fort Worth is the seat of Texas Christian University (1873) and Texas Wesleyan University (1890), and its attractions include the Amon Carter Museum.
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City (pop., 2000: 205,727), northeastern Indiana, U.S. Once the chief town of the Miami Indians, it was the site of a French trading post in the late 17th century. It was taken by the English (1760) and then by Indians under Pontiac (1763). A log stockade built in 1794 by Gen. Anthony Wayne gave the town its name. The city's industrial growth began with the building of the Wabash and Erie Canal in the 1830s. It now manufactures a range of machinery, including automotive and electrical equipment. It is the site of educational institutions, including Concordia Theological Seminary (1846) and St. Francis College (1890). Johnny Appleseed, the pioneer orchard planter, is buried there.
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National reserve, northeastern Florida, U.S. Established in 1924 and covering 228 acres (92 hectares), it centres around a Spanish fort on Rattlesnake Island, 14 mi (23 km) south of St. Augustine. Originating in 1569 as a wooden tower and completed in 1742, the fort is near the site of the slaughter of 300 French Huguenot colonists by Spaniards in 1565.
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City (pop., 2000: 152,397), southeastern Florida, U.S. It is located on the Atlantic Ocean, 25 mi (40 km) north of Miami. A fort built there in 1838 gave its name to the town, which was established in 1895 and later developed as a shipping and commercial centre and residential resort. The Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway is connected to the city's deepwater port, Port Everglades. The city is interlaced with recreational waterways and has extensive boating facilities, which have given rise to a marine industry.
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Fort-de-France is the capital of France's Caribbean département d'outre-mer of Martinique. With a population of 134,727 inhabitants (1999 census) in the urban area, 94,049 of whom live in the city (commune) of Fort-de-France proper, it is also one of the major cities in the Caribbean. Exports include sugar, rum, tinned fruit, and cacao.
In 1638, Jacques Duparquet, first governor of Martinique, decided to have Fort Saint Louis built to protect the city against enemy attacks. The fort was soon destroyed, and rebuilt in 1669, when Louis XIV appointed the Marquis of Baas as governor general. Under his orders and those of his successors, particularly the Count of Blénac, the fort was built with a Vauban design.
Originally named Fort-Royal, the administrative capital of Martinique was shadowed by Saint-Pierre, the oldest city in the island, which was renowned for its commercial and cultural vibrancy as "The Paris of the Caribbean". The name of Fort-Royal was changed to a short-lived "Fort-La-Republique" during the French Revolution, and finally settled as Fort-de-France sometimes in the 19th century. The old name of Fort-Royal is still used today familiarly in its Creole language form of "Foyal", with the inhabitants of the city being "Foyalais".
The city had its share of disasters, being partially destroyed by an earthquake in 1839 and in 1890 by fire. At the turn of the 20th century, however, Fort-de-France became economically important after the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre in 1902. The city, however, never lived up to the cultural reputation of the doomed city.
Until 1918, when its commercial growth began, Fort-de-France had an inadequate water supply, was partly surrounded by swamps, and was notorious for yellow fever. Now the swamps are drained to make room for extensive suburbs.
It is under command of the capitaine de vaisseau in charge of the Navy and the Naval air force for the Caribbean (COMAR ANTILLES). The forces based here include:
Also here are the administrative buildings of the base, the service for naval constructions, the radio station of Pointe des Sables and the ammunition storage facilities (at the end of Fort de France), and the Rivière Salée station (20 km away).
The fort is also home to the last iguana (Iguana Delicatissima) populations of Martinique. However it is discussed whether the reptiles are native to Martinique or are remnants of the population of a small zoo that was located in the fort at the beginning of the 20th century.
The city has a fine natural harbour defended by three forts:
Other sites of interest include :
A statue commemorating Martinique-born Empress Josephine, the wife of Napoleon, is in the gardens of La Savane. It was vandalized in the 1990s, presumably by individuals who faulted her for supporting the reestablishment of slavery on the island.
Forts Popham, Baldwin still conjure history's magic ; Situated at the mouth of the Kennebec River in Phippsburg, the two forts offer a wealth of history amid natural beauty. Series: ABOUT THE SERIES M
Aug 20, 2008; BOB KEYES By BOB KEYES Staff Writer Portland Press Herald (Maine) 08-20-2008 forts Popham, Baldwin still conjure history's...