The Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" is a series of biplane aircraft built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport, New York, later the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company. Curtiss combined the best features of the model J and model N trainers, built for the Army and Navy, and began producing the JN or "Jenny" series of aircraft in 1915. Curtiss only built a limited number of the JN-1 and JN-2 biplanes.
Design and development
The JN-2, somewhat deficient in performance, was an equal-span biplane with ailerons
controlled by a shoulder yoke located in the aft cockpit
. The improved JN-3 incorporated unequal spans with ailerons only on the upper wings, controlled by a wheel
. In addition, a foot bar was added to control the rudder
The 1st Aero Squadron (Signal Corps) began receiving JN-2s in 1915. The Squadron was transferred to Fort Sill Oklahoma
in 1916 to work with the Artillery School. Later that year some of the aircraft, both JN-2s and JN-3s, were deployed to Mexico for aerial observation
during the Pancho Villa Expedition
The Curtiss JN-4 is possibly North America's most famous World War I aircraft. It was widely used during World War I to train beginning pilots. The Canadian version was the JN-4(Can), also known as the "Canuck", and was built with a control stick instead of the Deperdussin control wheel used in the regular JN-4 model, as well as usually having a somewhat more rounded rudder outline than the American version. The U.S. version was called "Jenny". It was a twin-seat (student in front of instructor) dual control biplane. Its tractor prop and maneuverability made it ideal for initial pilot training with a 90 hp (67 kW) Curtiss OX-5 V8 engine giving a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h) and a service ceiling of 6,500 ft (1980 m).
A seaplane version was built for the Navy which was so modified that it was essentially a different airframe. This was designated the N-9.
The final version of the aircraft was the JN-6. In U.S. Army Air Service usage the JN-4s and JN-6s were configured to the JNS ("S" for "standardized") model.
The British used the JN-4 (along with the Avro 504) for their primary World War I trainer; Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd produced them in Canada. Many Royal Flying Corps pilots earned their wings on the JN-4, both in Ontario and in Texas.
Most of the 6,813 built were unarmed, although some had machine guns and bomb racks for advanced training. None saw active service. After World War I, hundreds were sold on the civilian market, one to Charles Lindbergh as his first aircraft. The plane's slow speed and stability made it ideal for stunt flying and aerobatic displays. Some were still flying into the 1930s.
The Inverted Jenny is a United States postage stamp of 1918 in which a Curtiss JN4 aircraft in the center of the design was accidentally printed upside-down. It is one of the most well-known stamps in philately.
In 1921, Lee De Forest filmed a short film Flying Jenny Airplane in his Phonofilm sound-on-film process. The film depicted a JN-4 flying, and recorded the sound of the plane as well.
- JN-4A - Production version of the JN-4. 781 built.
- JN-4B - This version was powered by a OX-2 piston engine. 76 built for the US Army, nine for the US Navy.
- JN-4C - Experimental version, only two were built.
- JN-4Can Canuck - Canadian-built version, 1,260 built by Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd.
- JN-4D - Improved version, 2,812 built.
- JN-4D-2 - One prototype only.
- JN-4H - two-seat advanced trainer biplane, 929 built for the US Army.
- JN-4HT - Two-seat dual-control trainer version.
- JN-4HB - Combing trainer version.
- JN-4HG - Gunnary trainer version.
- JN-5H - One-off advanced trainer biplane, only one was built.
- JN-6H - Improved version, with strengthed aileron control structure. 1,035 built for the US Army and five for the US Navy.
- JN-6BH - Bomber trainer version.
- JN-6HG-1 - Two-seat dual-control trainer version.
- JN-6HG-2 - Single-control gunnery trainer.
- JN-6HO - Single-control observer trainer version.
- JN-6HP - single-control persuit fighter trainer version.
- JNS - Between 200 to 300 US Army aircraft were upgraded and modernized, during the post-war years of the early 1920s.
- Ericson Special Three - Some reconditioned aircraft built by Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd were fitted with a third cockpit.
- Twin JN - Enlarged twin-engined version of the JN-4, powered by two OXX-2 piston engines. Eight built.