The most common commercially available FFV in the market is the ethanol flexible-fuel vehicle, with more than 14 million vehicles on the road around the world by mid-2008, concentrated in the United States (7.3 million), Brazil (6.2 million), Canada (600,000), and Europe, led by Sweden (116,000). In addition to flex-fuel vehicles running with ethanol, in Europe and the US, mainly in California, there have been successful test programs with methanol flex-fuel vehicles, known as M85 flex-fuel vehicles. There have been also successful tests using P-series fuels with E85 flex fuel vehicles, but as of June 2008, this fuel is not yet available to the general public. These successful tests with P-series fuels were conducted on Ford Taurus and Dodge Caravan flexible-fuel vehicles.
Though technology exists to allow ethanol FFVs to run on any mixture of gasoline and ethanol, from pure gasoline up to 100% ethanol (E100), North American and European flex-fuel vehicles are optimized to run on a maximum blend of 15% gasoline with 85% anhydrous ethanol (called E85 fuel). This limit in the ethanol content is set to avoid cold starting problems during cold weather, and to reduce ethanol emissions at temperatures lower than 15 ° Celsius (59 °F). The alcohol content might be reduced during the winter in regions with very cold temperatures, to a blend E70 in the U.S. or to E75 in Sweden. Brazilian flex fuel vehicles are optimized to run on any mix of E20-E25 gasoline and up to 100% hydrous alcohol (E100). The Brazilian flex vehicles are built-in with a small gasoline reservoir for cold starting the engine when temperatures drop below 15 ° Celsius (59 °F). An improved flex motor generation that will be launched in 2009 is designed to eliminate the need for the secondary gas tank.
Flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are based on dual-fuel systems that supply both fuels into the combustion chamber at the same time in various calibrated proportions. The most common fuels used by FFVs today are unleaded gasoline and ethanol fuel. Ethanol FFVs can run on pure gasoline, pure ethanol (Common ethanol fuel mixtures#E100) or any combination of both. Methanol has also been blended with gasoline in flex-fuel vehicles known as M85 FFVs, but their use has been limited mainly to demonstration projects and small government fleets, particularly in California.
Ethanol, methanol and natural gas CNG were the three alternative fuels that received more attention and government support.
Since the second half of the 1970s, and as a response to the oil shock, the Brazilian government implemented the National Alcohol Program -Pró-Álcool- (Portuguese: "Programa Nacional do Álcool"), a nationwide program financed by the government to phase out all automobile fuels derived from fossil fuels in favor of ethanol made from sugar cane. It began with a low blend of anhydrous alcohol with regular gasoline, and since July 2007 the mandatory blend is 25% of alcohol or gasohol E25. In July 1979, and as a response to the second oil crisis, the first vehicle capable of running with pure ethanol was built, the Fiat 147. The Brazilian government provided three important initial drivers for the ethanol industry: guaranteed purchases by the state-owned oil company Petrobras, low-interest loans for agro-industrial ethanol firms, and fixed gasoline and ethanol prices. After reaching more than 4 million cars and light trucks running on pure ethanol by the late 1980s, the use of E100-only vehicles sharply declined after increases in sugar prices produced shortages of ethanol fuel. After extensive research, a second push took place in May 2003, when the Brazilian subsidiary of Volkswagen began production of the first full flexible-fuel car, the Gol 1.6 Total Flex. Several months later was followed by other Brazilian automakers, and by 2008 Chevrolet, Fiat, Ford, Peugeot, Renault,Volkswagen, Honda, Mitsubishi, Toyota and Citröen were producing popular models of flex cars and light trucks. The adoption of ethanol flex fuel vehicles was so successful, that production of flex cars went from almost 40 thousand in 2003 to 1.7 million in 2007. This rapid adoption of the flex technology was facilitated by the fuel distribution infrastructure already in place, as around 27,000 filling stations countrywide were available by 1997 with at least one ethanol pump, a heritage of the Pró-Álcool program.
In the United States, initial support to develop alternative fuels by the government was also a response to the oil crisis, and some time later, as a goal to improve air quality. Also, liquid fuels were preferred over gaseous fuels not only because they have a better volumetric energy density but also because they were the most compatible fuels with existing distribution systems and engines, thus avoiding a big departure from the existing technologies and taking advantage of the vehicle and the refueling infrastructure. California led the search of sustainable alternatives with interest focused in methanol. Ford Motor Company and other automakers responded to California's request for vehicles that run on methanol. In 1981, Ford delivered 40 dedicated methanol fuel (M100) Escorts to Los Angeles County, but only four refueling stations were installed. The biggest challenge in the development of alcohol vehicle technology was getting all of the fuel system materials compatible with the higher chemical reactivity of the fuel. Methanol was even more of a challenge than ethanol but, fortunately, much of the early experience gained with ethanol vehicle production in Brazil was transferable to methanol. The success of this small experimental fleet of M100s led California to request more of these vehicles, mainly for government fleets. In 1983, Ford built 582 M100 vehicles; 501 went to California, and the remaining to New Zealand, Sweden, Norway, United Kingdom, and Canada.
As an answer to the lack of refueling infrastructure, Ford began development of a flexible-fuel vehicle in 1982, and between 1985 and 1992, 705 experimental FFVs were built and delivered to California and Canada, including the 1.6L Escort, the 3.0L Taurus, and the 5.0L LTD Crown Victoria. These vehicles could operate on either gasoline or methanol with only one fuel system. Legislation was passed to encourage the US auto industry to begin production, which started in 1993 for the M85 FFVs at Ford. In 1996, a new FFV Ford Taurus was developed, with models fully capable of running on either methanol or ethanol blended with gasoline. This ethanol version of the Taurus became the first commercial production of a E85 FFV. The momentum of the FFV production programs at the American car companies continued, although by the end of the 1990s, the emphasis shifted to the FFV E85 version, as it is today. Ethanol was preferred over methanol because there is a large support from the farming community, and thanks to the government's incentive programs and corn-based ethanol subsidies. Sweden also tested both the M85 and the E85 flexifuel vehicles, but due to agriculture policy, in the end emphasis was given to the ethanol flexifuel vehicles. Support for ethanol also comes from the fact that it is a biomass fuel, which addresses climate change concerns and greenhouse gas emissions, though these benefits are now highly debated depending on the feedstock used for ethanol production.
The demand for ethanol fuel produced from field corn in the United States was stimulated by the discovery in the late 90s that methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenate additive in gasoline, was contaminating groundwater. Due to the risks of widespread and costly litigation, and because MTBE use in gasoline was banned in almost 20 states by 2006, the substitution of MTBE opened a new market for ethanol fuel. This demand shift for ethanol as an oxygenate additive took place at a time when oil prices were already significantly rising. By 2006, about 50 percent of the gasoline used in the U.S. contains ethanol at different proportions, and ethanol production grew so fast that the US became the world's first ethanol producer, overtaking Brazil in 2005. This shift also contributed to a sharp increase in the production and sale of E85 flex vehicles since 2002.
After the 1973 oil crisis, the Brazilian government made mandatory the use of ethanol blends with gasoline, and 100% ethanol powered cars (E100 only) were developed by 1979. Brazilian carmakers modified gasoline engines to support ethanol characteristics and changes included compression ratio, amount of fuel injected, replacement of materials that would get corroded by the contact with ethanol, use of colder spark plugs suitable for dissipating heat due to higher flame temperatures, and an auxiliary cold-start system that injects gasoline from a small tank in the engine compartment to help starting when cold. Flexible-fuel technology started being developed only by the end of the 1990s by Brazilian engineers. The Brazilian flexible fuel car is built with an ethanol-ready engine and one fuel tank for both fuels. The gasoline reservoir for starting in cold weather was kept in the first generation of Brazilian flexible-fuel cars, mainly for users of the southern regions, where winter temperatures can drop below 15° Celsius (59 °F). An improved flex motor generation that will be launched in 2009 will eliminate the need for this secondary gas storage tank. A key innovation in the Brazilian flex technology was avoiding the need for an additional dedicated sensor to monitor the ethanol-gasoline mix, which made the first American M85 flex fuel vehicles to expensive. This was accomplished through the lambda probe, used to measure the quality of combustion in conventional engines, is also required to tell the engine control unit (ECU) which blend of gasoline and alcohol is being burned. This task is accomplished automatically through software developed by Brazilian engineers, called "Software Fuel Sensor" (SFS), fed with data from the standard sensors already built-in the vehicle, . The technology was developed by the Brazilian subsidiary of Bosch in 1994, but was further improved and commercially implemented in 2003 by the Italian subsidiary of Magneti Marelli, located in Hortolândia, São Paulo. A similar fuel injection technology was developed by the Brazilian subsidiary of Delphi Automotive Systems, and it is called "Multifuel", based on research conducted at its facility in Piracicaba, São Paulo. This technology allows the controller to regulate the amount of fuel injected and spark time, as fuel flow needs to be decreased and also self-combustion needs to be avoided when gasoline is used because ethanol engines have compression ratio around 12:1, too high for gasoline.
|Note: * Until August 2008. Source: ANFAVEA. ** Total light vehicles includes|
autos and light trucks fueled with gasoline, pure ethanol, flex, and diesel.
The flexibility of Brazilian FFVs empower the consumers to choose the fuel depending on current market prices. As ethanol fuel economy is lower than gasoline because of ethanol's energy content is close to 34% less per unit volume than gasoline, flex cars running on ethanol get a lower mileage than when running on pure gasoline. However, this effect is partially offset by the usually lower price per liters of ethanol fuel. As a rule of thumb, Brazilian consumers are frequently advised by the media to use more alcohol than gasoline in their mix only when ethanol prices are 30% lower or more than gasoline, as ethanol price fluctuates heavily depending on the results and seasonal harvests of sugar cane.
In May 2003 Volkswagen built for the first time a production flexible fuel car, the Gol 1.6 Total Flex. Chevrolet followed two months later with the Corsa 1.8 Flexpower, using an engine developed by a joint-venture with Fiat called PowerTrain. By 2008, popular manufacturers that build flexible fuel vehicles are Chevrolet, Fiat, Ford, Peugeot, Renault ,Volkswagen, Honda, Mitsubishi, Toyota and Citröen. Flexible fuel cars were 22% of the new car sales in 2004, 73% in 2005, and reached 87.6% in July 2008. As of August 2008, the fleet of "flex" automobiles and light commercial vehicles had reached 6.2 million vehicles, representing 12% of Brazil's motor vehicle fleet and almost 19% of all registered light vehicles. The rapid success of flex vehicles was made possible by the existence of 33,000 filling stations with at least one ethanol pump available by 2006, a heritage of the early ethanol program. These facts, together with the mandatory use of E25 blend of gasoline throughout the country, allowed Brazil in 2008 to achieve more than 50% of fuel consumption in the gasoline market from sugar cane-based ethanol.
The latest innovation within the Brazilian flexible-fuel technology, is the development of flex-fuel motorcycles. In 2007 Magneti Marelli presented the first motorcycle with flex technology, adapted on a Kasinski Seta 125, and based on the Software Fuel Sensor (SFS) the firm developed for flex-fuel cars in Brazil. Delphi Automotive Systems also presented in 2007 its Multifuel injection technology for motorcycles. Besides the flexibility in the choice of fuels, a main objective of the fuel-flex motorcycles is to reduce CO2 emissions by 20 percent, and savings in fuel consumption in the order of 5% to 10% are expected. These flex motorcycles will be available in the market by 2009, but AME Amazonas Motocicletas announced that sales of its motorcycle AME GA (G stands for gasoline and A for alcohol) will begin in December 2008. This model is based on the fuel injection technology developed by Delphi.
The Brazilian subsidiaries of Magneti Marelli, Delphi and Bosch have announced the introduction in 2009 of a new flex engine generation that will eliminate the need for the secondary gasoline tank, as flex vehicles will now be able to do a cold engine start at temperatures as low as minus 5° Celsius (23 °F), with new technology that will warm the ethanol fuel during starting. Another improvement is the reduction of fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions, between 10% to 15% as compared to flex motors in use today.
Flexible-fuel vehicles were introduced in Sweden as a demonstration test in 1994, when three Ford Taurus were imported to show the technology existed. Because of the existing interest, a project was started in 1995 with 50 Ford Taurus E85 flexifuel in different parts of Sweden: Umea, Örnsköldsvik, Härnösand, Stockholm, Karlstad, Linköping, and Växjö. Between 1997 to 1998 an additional 300 Taurus were imported, and the number of E85 fueling grew to 40. Then in 1998 the city of Stockholm placed an order for 2,000 of FFVs for any car manufacturer willing to produce them. The objective was to jump-start the FFV industry in Sweden. The two domestic car makers Volvo Group and Saab AB refused to participate arguing there were not in place any ethanol filling stations. However, Ford Motor Company took the offer and began importing the flexifuel version of its Focus model, delivering the first cars in 2001, and selling more than 15,000 FFV Focus by 2005, then representing an 80% market share of the flexifuel market.
In 2005 both Volvo and Saab introduced to the Sweden market their flexifuel models. Saab began selling its 9-5 2.0 Biopower, joined in 2006 by its 9-5 2.3 Biopower. Volvo introduced its S40 and V50 with flexible-fuel engines, joined in late 2006 by the new C30. All Volvo models were initially restricted to the Sweden market, until 2007, when these three models were launched in eight new European markets. In 2007, Saab also started selling a BioPower version of its popular Saab 9-3 line. In 2008 the Saab-derived Cadillac BLS was introduced with E85 compatible engines, and Volvo launched the V70 with a 2.5-litre turbocharged Flexifuel engine. All flexible-fuel vehicles in Sweden use E-75 fuel instead of E-85 during the winter to avoid engine starting problems during cold weather.
Sweden has achieved the largest E85 flexible-fuel vehicle fleet in Europe, with a sharp growth from 717 vehicles in 2001 to 116,695 by July 2008. The recent and accelerated growth of the Swedish fleet of E85 flexifuel vehicles, as they are popularly known, is the result of the National Climate Policy in Global Cooperation Bill passed in 2005, which not only ratified the Kyoto Protocol but also sought to meet the 2003 EU Biofuels Directive regarding targets for use of biofuels, and also let to the 2006 government's commitment to eliminate oil imports by 2020.
In order to achieve these goals several government incentives were implemented. Ethanol, as the other biofuels, were exempted of both, the CO2 and energy taxes until 2009, resulting in a 30% price reduction at the pump of E85 fuel over gasoline. Furthermore, other demand side incentives for flexifuel vehicle owners include a USD 1,800 bonus to buyers of FFVs, exemption from the Stockholm congestion tax, up to 20% discount on auto insurance, free parking spaces in most of the largest cities, ower annual registration taxes, and a 20% tax reduction for flexifuel company cars. Also, a part of the program, the Swedish Government ruled that 25% of their vehicle purchases (excluding police, fire and ambulance vehicles) must be alternative fuel vehicles. By the first months of 2008, this package of incentives resulted in sales of flexible-fuel cars representing 25% of new car sales.
On the supply side, since 2005 the gasoline fulling stations selling more than 3 million liters of fuel a year are required to sell at least one type of biofuel, resulting in more than 1,200 gas stations selling E85 by August 2008. Despite all the sharp growth of E85 flexifuel cars, by 2007 they represented just 2% of the 4 million Swedish vehicle fleet. In addition, this law also mandated all new filling stations to offer alternative fuels, and stations with an annual volume of more than 1 million liters are required to have an alternative fuel pump by 31 December 2009. Therefore, the number of E85 pumps is expected to reach by 2009 nearly 60% of Sweden’s 4,000 filling stations.
The Swedish-made Koenigsegg CCXR, a version of the CCX, is currently the fastest and most powerful flexible fuel vehicle with its twin-supercharged V8 producing 1018 hp when running on biofuel, as compared to 806 hp on 91 octane US unleaded gasoline.
| Bioethanol E85 stations |
| As of|
|Note: * Data until August 2008. ** Net increase is new FFVs |
manufactured discounted by the survival rate.
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
E-85 flex-fuel vehicles are becoming increasingly common in the Midwest, where corn is a major crop and is the primary feedstock for ethanol fuel production. Also the US government has been using flex-fuel vehicles for many years. By 2008 almost any type of automobile and light duty vehicles is available in the market with the flex-fuel option, including sedans, vans, SUVs and pick-up trucks.
A 2005 survey found that 68% of American flex-fuel car owners were not aware they owned an E85 flex. This is due to the fact that the exterior of flex and non-flex vehicles look exactly the same; there is no sale price difference between them; the lack of consumer's awareness about E85s; and also the decision of American automakers of not putting any kind of exterior labeling, so buyers can be aware they are getting an E85 vehicle. In contrast, all Brazilian automakers clearly mark FFVs with badging or a high quality sticker in the exterior body, with a logo with some variant of the word Flex. Since 2006 many new FFV models in the US feature a bright yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85 capabilities, and GM is also using badging with the text "Flexfuel/E85 Ethanol" to clearly mark the car as an E85 FFV.
Some critics have argued, including U.S. Representative Jay Inslee, that American automakers have been producing E85 flex models motivated by a loophole in the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements, that allows for a fuel economy credit for every flex-fuel vehicle sold, whether or not in practice these vehicles are fueled with E85. This loophole might allow the car industry to meet the CAFE targets in fuel economy just by spending between USD 100 to USD 200 that it cost to turn a conventional vehicle into a flex-fuel, without investing in new technology to improve fuel economy, and saving them the potential fines for not achieving that standard in a given model year. In an example presented by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the agency responsible for establishing the CAFE standards, the special treatment provided for alternative fuel vehicles, "turns a dual fuel vehicle that averages 25 mpg on gasoline or diesel... to attain the 40 mpg value for CAFE purposes." The current CAFE standards are 27.5 mpg for automobiles and 22.2 mpg for light-duty trucks." In late 2007, CAFE standards received their first overhaul in more than 30 years through the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and now are set to rise to 35 mpg by the year 2020.
A major restriction hampering sales of E85 flex vehicles or fulling with E85, is the limited infrastructure available to sell E85 to the public, as by July 2008 there were only 1,706 gasoline filling stations selling E85 to the public in the entire US, with a great concentration of E85 stations in the Corn Belt states, lead by Minnesota with 353 stations, the most that any other state, followed by Illinois with 181, and Wisconsin with 114. The main constraint for a more rapid expansion of E85 availability is that it requires dedicated storage tanks at filling stations, at an estimated cost of USD 60,000 for each dedicated ethanol tank. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, signed into law by President Bush on 8 August 2005, in its Section 701 requires the federal government's fleet of vehicles capable of operating on alternative fuels to be operated on these fuels exclusively, unless a waiver is granted if the alternative fuel is not reasonably available; or if the cost of the fuel required is unreasonably more expensive compared to gasoline. The Federal vehicle fleet consists of 650,000 vehicles, of which 121,778 are alternative fuel vehicles, mostly E85s.
Because ethanol contains close to 34% less energy per unit volume than gasoline, E85 FFVs have a lower mileage per gallon than gasoline. However, this lower energy content does not translate directly into a 34% reduction in miles per U.S. gallon, because there are many other variables that affect the performance of a particular fuel in a particular engine, though for E85 the effect becomes significant. E85 will produce lower mileage than gasoline, and actual performance may vary depending on the vehicle. Based on EPA tests for all 2006 E85 models, the average fuel economy for E85 vehicles was 25.56% lower than unleaded gasoline. The EPA-rated mileage of current American flex-fuel vehicles could be considered when making price comparisons, though E85 has octane rating of about 104 and could be used as a substitute for premium gasoline. Regional retail E85 prices vary widely across the US, with more favorable prices in the Midwest region, where most corn is grown and ethanol produced. In August 2008 the US average spread between the price of E85 and gasoline was 16.9%, while in Indiana was 35%, 30% in Minnesota and Wisconsin, 19% in Maryland, 12 to 15% in California, and just 3% in Utah. Depending of the vehicle capabilities, the break even price of E85 has to be between 25 to 30% lower than gasoline. (See price comparisons for most states at e85prices.com)
The BioFuels Security Act is a proposed legislative Act of Congress (bill) intended to phase out current single-fueled vehicles (fossil fuel vehicles) in favor of flexible-fuel vehicles. Under this proposal, contemporary single-fuel vehicles would cease production in 2016 . Also the E85 and Biodiesel Access Act introduced by Congresswoman Stephanie Herseth Sandlin (D-SD) and Congressman John Shimkus (R-IL), be included in any energy legislation that may be approved during this session of Congress. Currently the IRS limits the tax credit only to the amount a duel fuel dispenser exceeds the cost of a conventional dispenser. The E85 and Biodiesel Access Act would increase the credit from 30 percent of the cost of clean fueling property to 50 percent and increase the maximum credit to $100,000. This law would also extend the existing credit which is scheduled to expire at the end of 2009. Also both major Presidential candidates and several members of the United States Congress have recently called for mandatory production of flexible fuel vehicles.
Chrysler, GM, and Ford have each pledged to manufacture 50 percent of their entire vehicle line as flexible fuel in model year 2012, if enough fueling infrastructure develops. The new plug-in series-hybrid vehicle Chevrolet Volt by General Motors, expected to be launched in the North American market in 2010, will take advantage of the E-Flex technology used today in GM's E-85 flex cars as one of the options that will be developed to recharge the batteries.
Saab Australia became the first car maker to produce a E85 flex-fuel car for the Australian market with the Saab 9-5 BioPower. One month later launched the new 9-3 BioPower, the first vehicle in Australia to give drivers a choice of three fuels, E85, diesel or gasoline, and both automobiles are sold for a small premium. Australia's largest independent fuel retailer, United Petroleum, announced plans to install Australia's first commercial E85 fuel pumps, one in Sydney and one in Melbourne.
| Comparison of key characteristics among the leading |
ethanol flexible-fuel vehicle markets
|Type of flexible-fuel vehicle (fuel used)||E20 to E100||E85||E85||Brazil's minimum mandatory blend is E20-E25. Winter E85 is actually E70 in the US and E75 in Sweden.|
|Main feedstock used for ethanol consumption||Sugar cane||80% imported||Maize||In 2007, most Swedish ethanol was imported, with a high share of sugar cane ethanol from Brazil.|
|Total flex-fuel fleet||6.2 million||116,000||7.3 million(1)||Brazil and US as of August 2008, Sweden as of July 2008.|
|Share of flex-fuel vehicles as % of total registered||12%||2.9%||2.8%||Brazil's fleet is 50 mi (March 2008), Sweden fleet is 4 mi (2007), and US fleet is 244 mi (2007).|
|Ethanol fueling stations in the country||33,000||1,200||1,766||Brazil for 2006, Sweden and the US as of August 2008.|
|Ethanol filling stations as % of total||100%||30%||1%||As % of total fueling gas stations in the country. Data for same years as above.|
|Ethanol fueling stations per million inhabitants||175.8||130.4||5.8||See List of countries by population. Brazil and US as of 2008-09-12, and Sweden as of 2008-06-30.|
|Retail price of E85 or Common ethanol fuel mixtures#E100 (local currency/unit)||R$ 1.259/lt||SEK 8.79/lt||US$ 2.60/gal||Prices at selected regions.(2)São Paulo, Jun 2008, Sweden, Jan 2008, and Minnesota, Aug 2008.|
|Retail price of gasoline or Common ethanol fuel mixtures#E25. (local currency/unit)||R$ 2.385/lt||SEK 11.99/lt||US$ 3.70/gal||Prices in São Paulo (Common ethanol fuel mixtures#E25), Jun 2008, Sweden, Jan 2008, and Minnesota, Aug 2008.|
|Price economy ethanol/gasoline price as %||47.2%(2)(3)||26.7%(3)||29.7%(2)(3)||São Paulo, June 2008, Sweden January 2008, and Minnesota, August 2008.|
| Notes: (1)The effective number of E85 flex vehicles in US roads actually using ethanol fuel is lower than shown, as a survey have shown than 68% of E85 owners are not aware they own a flex-fuel vehicle. A 2007 |
national survey found that only 5% of drivers actually use biofuels. (2) Regional prices vary widely in Brazil and the US. The states chosen reflect some of the lowest retail prices for ethanol, as both São Paulo and
Minnesota are main growers of feedstock and producers of ethanol, hence, the comparison presented is one of the most favorable for ethanol/gasoline price ratios. For example, US average spread was 16.9% in
August 2008, and it varied from 35% in Indiana to 3% in Utah. See more US price comparisons for most states at e85prices.com, and annual fuel costs for 2008 FFV US models at www.fueleconomy.gov
(3) Brazilian gasoline is heavily taxed (~54%), US ethanol production is subsidized (a US$ 0.51/gal federal tax credit), and Swedish E85 is exempt of CO2 and energy taxes until 2009 (~30% price reduction).