Definitions

flemings rules

T-rules

[tee-rool]

The T(ea)-rules (T(hee)-regels) are a set of rules used in Dutch language to determine whether the second person singular/plural and the first and third person singular of a verb end in -t or not. These rules must not be confused with the 't kofschip-rule.

The rules are taught as follows:

  • Ik drink nooit t(hee) (I (ik) never drink t(ea))
  • Jij drinkt alleen t(hee) als je tegenwoordig bent en voorafgaat (You (jij) only drink t(ea) if you be present and go forward)
  • Gij drinkt altijd t(hee) (You (gij) always drink t(ea))
  • U drinkt enkel t(hee) als u tegenwoordig is (You (U/u) only drink t(ea) if you be present)
  • Hij drinkt enkel t(hee) als hij tegenwoordig is (He (hij) only drinks t(ea) if he be present)

However the actual rules for Dutch conjugation are more complex.

Second person pronouns

Jij/je (2nd singular)

The pronoun jij/je only makes the verb end in -t if it precedes the verb, and if the verb is in the simple present or present perfect indicative. Modal verbs and the future/conditional auxiliary zullen allow forms with and without -t (but the subject pronoun must still precede the verb for the -t form to appear).

  • Jij gaat naar school. ("You go to school", simple present indicative, jij precedes verb)
  • Ga jij naar school? ("Do you go to school?", jij does not precede verb)
  • Je zou naar school gaan. ("You would go to school", conditional auxiliary)
  • Jij ging naar school. ("You went to school", past tense)
  • Je kan naar school gaan. ("You can go to school", modal form without t)
  • Je kunt naar school gaan. ("You can go to school", modal t-form, je precedes verb)
  • Kun je naar school gaan? ("Can you go to school?", modal, je does not precede verb)
  • Je zal naar school gaan. ("You will go to school", future auxiliary without t)
  • Je zult naar school gaan. ("You will go to school", future auxiliary t-form, je precedes verb)
  • Zul je naar school gegaan zijn? ("Will you have gone to school?", future auxiliary, je does not precede verb)

If the radical of the verb end in -t, the jij form always ends in -t:

  • Jij rust. ("You rest", je precedes verb)
  • Rust jij? ("Do you rest?", je does not precede verb)

With the verbs houden, rijden and verbs derived from them, the -d of the radical can be dropped if it is not followed by -t. In a formal context, usually the d is not dropped.

  • Hou jij van bloemen ("Do you like flowers?")
  • Houd jij van bloemen ("Do you like flowers?", formal)
  • Jij houdt van bloemen ("You like flowers", jij precedes verb)

Jullie (2nd plural)

The pronoun jullie always makes the verb end in -en. The ending -t is also possible, but this form is archaic.

  • Jullie gaan naar school. ("You go to school")
  • Jullie gaat naar school. ("You go to school", archaic)

Gij/ge (2nd sing./plur.)

The pronoun gij/ge makes the verb end in -t, whether the pronoun precede or follow the verb. Modal and auxiliary forms also end in -t:

  • Gij gaat naar school. ("You go to school", present indicative, gij precedes)
  • Gaat gij naar school. ("Do you go to school?", gij follows)
  • Ge zoudt naar school gaan. ("You would go to school", conditional)
  • Gij gingt naar school. ("You went to school", past)
  • Ge kunt naar school gaan. ("You can go to school", modal)

No extra -t is added if the verb stem already end in -t. The ending -t is added after -d:

  • Gij rust. ("You rest")
  • Houdt gij van bloemen ("Do you like flowers?")
  • Gij houdt van bloemen ("You like flowers")

In the subjunctive and in the regular past, the -t can be dropped, but this is not obligatory:

  • Gij neme(t) een lepel suiker. (You take a spoon of sugar, present subjunctive)
  • Werkte(t) ge hard? (Did you work hard, regular past)

In informal speech (only in Flanders/Brabant), the -t changes into -de, if gij follow the verb:

  • Zijde gij blind! Ziede gij dat nu niet! ("Are you blind! Didn't you see that!", I informal)

In very informal speech (only in Flanders/Brabant), the subject is dropped and the -t changes into -de:

  • Zijde blind! Ziede dat nu niet! ("Are you blind! Didn't you see that!", informal)

Third person singular and u/U

The rules for third person singular subjects and the pronoun u/U (2nd person sing./plur.) are the same: the verb takes -t in the simple present and present perfect tense of the indicative. Modal verbs and zullen have forms without -t.

  • Hij gaat naar school. ("He goes to school", present indicative)
  • Gaat u naar school. ("Do you go to school", present indicative)
  • Hij zou naar school gaan. ("He would go to school", conditional)
  • U ging naar school. ("You went to school", past)
  • Zij kan naar school gaan. ("She can go to school", modal)

The first person singular for non-modal verb is identical to the radical. The form can end in a vowel or in a consonant (including t). For the verbs houden, rijden and their derivatives, the -d of the radical is also dropped. In a formal context, usually the d is not dropped.

  • Ik ga naar school ("I go to school")
  • Ik rust ("I rest", radical ends in t)
  • Ik hou van bloemen ("I love flowers", form without -d)
  • Ik houd van bloemen ("I love flowers", form with -d, formal)

See also

Search another word or see flemings ruleson Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;