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High jump

The high jump is an athletics (track and field) event in which competitors must jump over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without the aid of any devices. It has been contested since the Olympic Games of ancient Greece. Over the centuries since, competitors have introduced increasingly more effective techniques to arrive at the current form. Javier Sotomayor (Cuba) is both the indoor and outdoor world record holder in this event with jumps of and , respectively. Sotomayor's record, set in 1993, is the longest standing in the history of the men's high jump. Stefka Kostadinova (Bulgaria) has held the women's world record (2.09m) since 1987, the longest-held record in the event.

History

ImageSize = width:200 height:990 PlotArea = width:35 height:950 left:50 bottom:40 Legend = columns:2 left:15 top:25 columnwidth:50 AlignBars = early

DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:1920 till:2004 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:5 start:1920

Colors=

 id:Basis  value:red legend:World_record_women's_high_jump

PlotData=

 bar:Leaders width:25 mark:(line,white) align:left fontsize:XS shift:(22,-4)


 from:1922 till:end color:Basis
 at:1922               text:Nancy Vorhees_1,46_m
 at:1926               text:Phyllis Green_1,55_m
 at:1929               text:Carolina Gisoll_1,60_m
 at:1932               text:Jean Shiley_1,65_m
 at:1939               text:Dorothy Adams_1,66_m
 at:1943               text:Fanny Blankers-Koen_1,71_m
 at:1956               text:Mildred Singleton_1,76_m
 at:1958               text:Iolanda Balas_1,80_m
 at:1960 shift:(22,-8) text:Iolanda_Balas_1,85_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,-7) text:Iolanda_Balas_1,90_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,0)  text:Iolanda_Balas_1,91_m
 at:1971               text:Ilona Gusenbauer_1,92_m
 at:1972               text:Jordanka Blagojewa_1,94_m
 at:1974               text:Rosemarie Ackermann_1,95_m
 at:1976 shift:(22,-8) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_1,96_m
 at:1977 shift:(22,-8) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_1,97_m
 at:1977 shift:(22,-1) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_2,00_m
 at:1978 shift:(22,-2) text:Sara Simeoni_2,01_m
 at:1982 shift:(22,-6) text:Ulrike Meyfarth_2,02_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,-8) text:Ulrike_Meyfarth_2,03_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,-1) text:Tamara Bykowa_2,04_m
 at:1984 shift:(22,-5) text:Tamara_Bykowa_2,05_m
 at:1984 shift:(22,2)  text:Ludmilla Andonowa_2,07_m
 at:1986               text:Stefka Kostadinova_2,08_m
 at:1987               text:Stefka_Kostadinova_2,09_m

The high jump predated the Olympics in ancient Greece. The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotland in the 19th century. Early jumpers used either an elaborate straight-on approach or a scissors technique. In the latter, the bar was approached diagonally, and the jumper threw first the inside leg and then the other over the bar in a scissoring motion. Around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to modernise, starting with the Irish-American M.F. Sweeney's Eastern cut-off. By taking off as if with the scissors, but extending his back and flattening out over the bar, the Sweeney achieved a more economic clearance and raised the world record to in 1895.

Another American, M.F. Horine, developed an even more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, but the inner leg is used for the take-off, while the outer leg is thrust up to lead the body sideways over the bar. Horine increased the world standard to in 1912. His technique predominated through the Berlin Olympics of 1936, in which the event was won by Cornelius Johnson at .

American and Russian jumpers held the playing field for the next four decades, and they pioneered the evolution of the straddle technique. Straddle jumpers took off as in the Western roll, but rotated their (belly-down) torso around the bar, obtaining the most economical clearance to date. Straddle-jumper Charles Dumas broke the elusive barrier in 1956, and American wunderkind John Thomas pushed the world mark to in 1960. Valeriy Brumel took over the event for the next four years. The elegant Soviet jumper radically sped up his approach run, took the record up to , and won the Olympic gold medal in 1964, before a motorcycle accident ended his career.

American coaches, including two-time NCAA champion Frank Costello of the University of Maryland, flocked to Russia to learn from Brumel and his coaches. However, it would be a solitary innovator at Oregon State University, Dick Fosbury, who would bring the high jump into the next century. Taking advantage of the raised, softer landing areas by then in use, Fosbury added a new twist to the outmoded Eastern Cut-off. He directed himself over the bar head and shoulders first, sliding over on his back and landing in a fashion which would likely have broken his neck in the old, sawdust landing pits. After he used this Fosbury flop to win the 1968 Olympic gold medal, the technique began to spread around the world, and soon floppers were dominating international high jump competitions. The last straddler to set a world record was the late Vladimir Yashchenko, who cleared in 1977 and then indoors in 1978.

Among renowned high jumpers following Fosbury's lead were: Americans Dwight Stones and his rival, tall Franklin Jacobs of Paterson, NJ, who cleared , an astounding over his head; Chinese record-setters Ni-chi Chin and Zhu Jianhua; Germans Gerd Wessig and Dietmar Mögenburg; Swedish Olympic medalist and world record holder Patrik Sjöberg; and female jumpers Iolanda Balaş of Romania, Ulrike Meyfarth of Germany and Italy's Sara Simeoni.

High jump shoes

High jump shoes are different from most other track shoes in that there are an additional one to four holes in the heel of the takeoff shoe, where the user can insert spikes for increased traction. As in the pole vault, heel strike in the high jump is important for lift-off as it allows the user to efficiently transfer energy. In addition, heel spikes aid greatly in the last four to five steps of the approach. The takeoff shoe has a thicker and more rigid sole than the non-takeoff shoe. IAAF regulations specify a maximum sole thickness for both high jump and long jump shoes; competitors in all other events may wear shoes with soles of any thickness.

Top performers

Updated 2008-10-03.

Men (outdoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date
1. 2.45 Javier Sotomayor Salamanca July 27, 1993
2. 2.42 Patrik Sjöberg Stockholm June 30, 1987
3. 2.41 Igor Paklin Kobe September 4, 1985
4. 2.40 Rudolf Povarnitsyn Donetsk August 11, 1985
Sorin Matei Bratislava June 20, 1990
Charles Austin Zurich August 7, 1991
Vyacheslav Voronin London August 5, 2000
8. 2.39 Jianhua Zhu Eberstadt June 10, 1984
Hollis Conway Norman July 30, 1989
10. 2.38 Gennadiy Avdeyenko Rome September 6, 1987
Sergey Malchenko Banská Bystrica September 4, 1988
Dragutin Topic Beograd August 1, 1993
Troy Kemp Nice July 12, 1995
Artur Partyka Eberstadt August 18, 1996
Jacques Freitag Oudtshoorn March 5, 2005
Andriy Sokolovskyy Rome July 8, 2005
Andrey Silnov London July 25, 2008

Women (outdoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date
1. 2.09 Stefka Kostadinova Rome August 30, 1987
2. 2.07 Lyudmila Andonova Berlin July 20, 1984
Blanka Vlašić Stockholm August 7, 2007
4. 2.06 Kajsa Bergqvist Eberstadt July 26, 2003
Hestrie Cloete Paris August 31, 2003
Yelena Slesarenko Athens August 28, 2004
7. 2.05 Tamara Bykova Kiev June 22, 1984
Heike Henkel Tokyo August 31, 1991
Inha Babakova Tokyo September 15, 1995
Tia Hellebaut Beijing August 23, 2008

Men (indoor)

Updated 2008-10-03.

Pos. Mark Athlete Venue Date
1. 2.43 Budapest March 4, 1989
2. 2.42 Berlin February 26, 1988
3. 2.41 Piraeus February 1, 1987
4. 2.40 Sevilla March 10, 1991
Madrid March 6, 2005
6. 2.39 Köln February 24, 1985
Berlin March 1, 1991
Moskva January 28, 2007
9. 2.38 Indianapolis March 7, 1987
Indianapolis March 7, 1987
Wuppertal February 4, 1994
Weinheim March 18, 1994
Wuppertal February 3, 1995
Atlanta March 4, 2000
Stockholm February 15, 2005
Göteborg February 25, 2007

Women (indoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Venue Date
1. 2.08 Arnstadt February 6, 2006
2. 2.07 Karlsruhe February 8, 1992
3. 2.06 Athinai February 20, 1988
4. 2.05 Banska Bystrica February 14, 2006
Birmingham March 3, 2007
6. 2.04 Berlin March 3, 1995
Yekaterinburg January 7, 2003
Budapest March 7, 2004
9. 2.03 Budapest March 6, 1983
Bucuresti January 23, 1999
Wien March 2, 2002

Best Year Performance

Men's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

Year Height Athlete Venue
1971 2.29 Berkeley
1972 2.25 Moscow
1973 2.30 Munich
1974 2.28 Oslo
1975 2.28 New York
1976 2.32 Philadelphia
1977 2.33 Richmond
1978 2.34 Tbilisi
1979 2.32 Ottawa
1980 2.36 Moscow
1981 2.33 Leningrad
1982 2.33 Delhi
1983 2.38 Shanghai
1984 2.39 Eberstadt
1985 2.41 Kobe
1986 2.38 Rieti
1987 2.42 Stockholm
1988 2.43 Salamanca
1989 2.44 San Juan
1990 2.40 Bratislava
1991 2.40 Saint-Denis
Zürich
1992 2.37 Seoul
1993 2.45 Salamanca
1994 2.42 Seville
1995 2.40 Mar del Plata
1996 2.39 Atlanta, Georgia
1997 2.37 Athens
1998 2.37 Maracaibo
1999 2.37 Seville
2000 2.40 London
2001 2.37 Eberstadt
2002 2.37 Durban
2003 2.36 Bydgoszcz
2004 2.36 Eberstadt
2005 2.38 Oudtshoorn
Rome
2006 2.37 Monaco
2007 2.35 Salamanca
Stockholm
Osaka
Osaka
2008 2.38 London

Women's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

Year Height Athlete Venue
1977 2.00 Berlin
1978 2.01 Brescia
1979 1.99 Turin
1980 1.98 Turin
1981 1.97 Brussels
1982 2.02 Athens
1983 2.04 Pisa
1984 2.07 Berlin
1985 2.06 Moscow
1986 2.08 Sofia
1987 2.09 Rome
1988 2.07 Sofia
1989 2.04 Barcelona
1990 2.02 Seattle
1991 2.05 Tokyo
1992 2.05 San Marino
1993 2.05 Fukuoka
1994 2.00 Havana
Moscow
Helsinki
1995 2.05 Tokyo
1996 2.05 Atlanta, Georgia
1997 2.02 Osaka
Fukuoka
1998 2.03 Kalámai
1999 2.04 Monaco
2000 2.02 Villeneuve d'Ascq
2001 2.04 Kalamáta
2002 2.05 Poznan
2003 2.06 Eberstadt
Saint-Denis
2004 2.06 Athens
2005 2.03 Sheffield
2006 2.05 London
2007 2.07 Stockholm
2008 2.06 Istanbul
Madrid

National records

Updated October 3, 2008.

Men

Nation Height Athlete Venue Date
2.45 m Javier Sotomayor Salamanca 1993-07-27
2.42 m Patrik Sjöberg Stockholm 1987-06-30
2.42 m Carlo Thränhardt Berlin 1988-02-26
2.41 m Igor Paklin Kobe 1985-09-04
2.40 m Rudolf Povarnitsin Donetsk 1985-08-11
2.40 m Sorin Matei Bratislava 1990-06-20
2.40 m Charles Austin Zürich 1991-08-07
2.40 m Vyacheslav Voronin London 2000-08-05
2.39 m Zhu Jianhua Eberstadt 1984-06-10
2.38 m Dragutin Topic Belgrad 1993-08-01
2.38 m Troy Kemp Nice 1995-07-12
2.38 m Artur Partyka Eberstadt 1996-08-18
2.38 m Jacques Freitag Oudtshoorn 2005-03-05
2.37 m Valeriy Sereda Rieti 1984-09-02
2.37 m Steve Smith Seoul 1992-09-20
2.36 m Eddy Annys Ghent 1985-05-26
2.36 m Jan Zvara Prague 1987-08-23
Jaroslav Baba Rome 2005-07-08
2.36 m Nick Saunders Auckland 1990-02-01
2.36 m Georgi Dakov Brussels 1990-08-10
2.36 m Lambros Papakostas Athens 1992-07-21
2.36 m Tim Forsyth Melbourne 1997-03-02
2.36 m Steinar Hoen Oslo 1997-07-01
2.36 m Konstantin Matusevich Perth 2000-02-05
2.35 m Jean-Charles Gicquel Paris 1994-03-13
2.35 m Mark Boswell Seville 1999-08-23
2.35 m Kyriakos Ioannou Osaka 2007-08-29
2.34 m Robert Ruffini Prague 1988-07-03
2.34 m Rolandas Verkys Warsaw 1991-06-16
2.34 m Arturo Ortíz Barcelona 1991-06-22
2.34 m Andrey Sankovich Gomel 1993-05-15
2.34 m Lee Jin-Taek Seoul 1997-06-20
2.34 m Abderrahmane Hammad Alger 2000-07-14
2.34 m Germaine Mason Santo Domingo 2003-08-09
2.34 m Kabelo Kgosiemang Addis Ababa 2008-05-04
2.33 m Marcello Benvenuti Verona 1989-09-12
2.33 m Gilmar Mayo Pereira 1994-10-17
2.33 m Naoyuki Daigo Kobe 2006-07-02
2.32 m Gennadiy Belkov Tashkent 1982-05-29
2.32 m Jessé de Lima Lausanne 2008-09-02
2.31 m Roland Dalhäuser Eberstadt 1981-06-07
2.31 m Oleg Palaschevskiy Bryansk 1990-08-12
2.31 m Elvir Krehmic Zagreb 1998-07-07
2.31 m Mika Polku Hämeenkyrö 2000-07-22
Toni Huikuri Bratislava 2002-06-11
2.30 m Marko Turban Rakvere 1996-06-05
2.30 m Normunds Sietiņš Nurmijervi 1992-07-20
2.30 m Adrian O'Dwyer Algiers 2004-06-24
2.26 m Metin Durmuşoğlu İstanbul 2002-06-08
2.22 m Felipe Apablaza Cochabamba 2001-06-03

Women

Nation Height Athlete Venue Date
2.09 m Stefka Kostadinova Rome 1987-08-30
2.07 m Heike Henkel Karlsruhe 1992-02-08
2.07 m Blanka Vlašić Stockholm 2007-08-07
2.06 m Kajsa Bergqvist Eberstadt 2003-07-26
2.06 m Hestrie Cloete Paris 2003-08-31
2.06 m Yelena Slesarenko Athens 2004-08-28
2.05 m Inga Babakova Tokyo 1995-09-15
2.05 m Tia Hellebaut Birmingham 2007-03-03
2.04 m Silvia Costa Barcelona 1989-09-09
2.03 m Louise Ritter Austin 1988-07-08
2.03 m Niki Bakogianni Atlanta 1996-08-03
2.03 m Monica Iagar Bucharest 1999-01-23
2.03 m Antonietta Di Martino Milan 2007-06-24
2.02 m Ruth Beitia San Sebastián 2007-08-04
2.01 m Olga Turchak Moskva 1986-07-07
2.01 m Hanne Haugland Zürich 1997-08-13
2.00 m Tatyana Shevchik Gomel 1993-05-14
2.00 m Zuzana Hlavoňová Prague 2000-06-05
2.00 m Britta Bilač Helsinki 1994-08-14
2.00 m Dóra Györffy Nyiregyhaza 2001-07-26
1.98 m Alison Inverarity Ingolstadt 1989-02-12
1.98 m Debbie Brill Rieti 1984-09-02
1.98 m Lyudmila Butuzova Sochi 1984-06-10
1.97 m Danuta Bułkowska Wörrstadt 1984-06-09
1.97 m Ling Jin Hamamatsu 1989-05-07
1.97 m Valentina Gotovska Vilnius 1990-08-04
1.97 m Sigrid Kirchmann Stuttgart 1993-08-21
1.97 m Olga Bolshova Rieti 1993-09-05
1.97 m Solange Witteveen Manaus 2001-05-19
1.97 m Tatyana Efimenko Rome 2003-07-11
1.97 m Romary Rifka Xalapa 2004-04-04
1.95 m Diana Elliott Oslo 1982-06-26
Susan Moncrieff Bremen 2001-06-24
Jessica Ennis Desenzano 2007-05-05
1.93 m Candeğer Oğuz İstanbul 2004-05-16
1.92 m Orlane dos Santos Bogotá 1989-08-11
1.91 m Viktoria Leks Tallinn 2007-02-11

See also

References

External links

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