Definitions

flannelmouth

Catostomidae

Catostomidae is the sucker family of the order Cypriniformes.

There are 80 species in this family of freshwater fishes. Catostomidae are found in North America, east central China, and eastern Siberia. Their mouth is located on the underside of the head (subterminal), with thick, fleshy lips. Most species are less than 60 cm (2 feet) in length but the largest species can reach 1 m (40 inches). They are not usually fished recreationally; they are not highly prized in North America for their flesh although they are a fairly popular target with spear fisherman.

Catostomids are most often found in rivers but can be found in any freshwater environment. Their food ranges from detritus and bottom dwelling organisms (such as crustaceans and worms), to surface insects and small fishes.

Fossil record

Catostomidae have been uncovered and dated to the Middle Eocene in Colorado and Utah. An enormous gap (36.2 million years) in the fossil record occurs from the Late Eocene to Early Pleistocene

As food

They are preferentially harvested in the spring, during their spawning run. They can be fried, canned or smoked.

Species

Subfamily Catostominae
Tribe Catostomini
* Genus Catostomus
** Utah sucker, Catostomus ardens (Jordan & Gilbert, 1881).
** Yaqui sucker, Catostomus bernardini (Girard, 1856).
** Cahita sucker, Catostomus cahita (Siebert & Minckley, 1986).
** Longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus catostomus (Forster, 1773).
** Jasper longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus lacustris (Bajkov, 1927).
** Desert sucker, Catostomus clarkii (Baird & Girard, 1854).
** Bridgelip sucker, Catostomus columbianus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1893).
** White sucker, Catostomus commersonii (Lacépède, 1803).
** Catostomus conchos (Meek, 1902).
** Bluehead sucker, Catostomus discobolus discobolus (Cope, 1871).
** Zuni bluehead sucker, Catostomus discobolus yarrowi (Cope, 1874).
** Owens sucker, Catostomus fumeiventris (Miller, 1973).
** Sonora sucker, Catostomus insignis (Baird & Girard, 1854).
** Flannelmouth sucker, Catostomus latipinnis (Baird & Girard, 1853).
** Bavispe sucker, Catostomus leopoldi (Siebert & Minckley, 1986).
** Largescale sucker, Catostomus macrocheilus (Girard, 1856).
** Modoc sucker, Catostomus microps (Rutter, 1908).
** Nazas sucker, Catostomus nebuliferus (Garman, 1881).
** Goose lake sucker, Catostomus occidentalis lacusanserinus (Fowler, 1913).
** Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis occidentalis Ayres, 1854.
** Mountain sucker, Catostomus platyrhynchus (Cope, 1874).
** Rio Grande sucker, Catostomus plebeius Baird & Girard, 1854.
** Jenny creek sucker, Catostomus rimiculus Gilbert & Snyder, 1898.
** Santa Ana sucker, Catostomus santaanae (Snyder, 1908).
** Klamath largescale sucker, Catostomus snyderi Gilbert, 1898.
** Tahoe sucker, Catostomus tahoensis Gill & Jordan, 1878.
** Warner sucker, Catostomus warnerensis Snyder, 1908.
** Opata sucker, Catostomus wigginsi Herre & Brock, 1936.
* Genus Chasmistes
** Shortnose sucker, Chasmistes brevirostris Cope, 1879.
** Cui-ui, Chasmistes cujus Cope, 1883.
** Chasmistes fecundus (Cope & Yarrow, 1875).
** June sucker, Chasmistes liorus liorus Jordan, 1878.
** Chasmistes liorus mictus Miller & Smith, 1981.
** Snake River sucker, Chasmistes muriei Miller & Smith, 1981.
* Genus Deltistes
** Lost River sucker, Deltistes luxatus (Cope, 1879).
* Genus Xyrauchen
** Razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus (Abbott, 1860).
Tribe Erimyzoninae
* Genus Erimyzon
** Creek chubsucker, Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill, 1814).
** Lake chubsucker, Erimyzon sucetta (Lacépède, 1803).
** Sharpfin chubsucker, Erimyzon tenuis (Agassiz, 1855).
* Genus Minytrema
** Spotted sucker, Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque, 1820).
Tribe Thoburniinae
* Genus Hypentelium
** Alabama hog sucker, Hypentelium etowanum (Jordan, 1877).
** Northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans (Lesueur, 1817).
** Roanoke hog sucker, Hypentelium roanokense Raney & Lachner, 1947.
* Genus Thoburnia
** Blackfin sucker, Thoburnia atripinnis (Bailey, 1959).
** Rustyside sucker, Thoburnia hamiltoni (Raney & Lachner, 1946).
** Torrent sucker, Thoburnia rhothoeca (Thoburn, 1896).
Tribe Moxostomatini
* Genus Moxostoma
** Longlip jumprock, Moxostoma albidum (Girard, 1856).
** Silver redhorse, Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque, 1820).
** Bigeye jumprock, Moxostoma ariommum Robins & Raney, 1956.
** Mexican redhorse, Moxostoma austrinum Bean, 1880.
** Smallmouth redhorse, Moxostoma breviceps (Cope, 1870).
** River redhorse, Moxostoma carinatum (Cope, 1870).
** Blacktip jumprock, Moxostoma cervinum (Cope, 1868).
** Notchlip redhorse, Moxostoma collapsum (Cope, 1870).
** Gray redhorse, Moxostoma congestum (Baird & Girard, 1854).
** Black redhorse, Moxostoma duquesni (Lesueur, 1817).
** Golden redhorse, Moxostoma erythrurum (Rafinesque, 1818).
** Copper redhorse, Moxostoma hubbsi Legendre, 1952.
** Harelip sucker, Moxostoma lacerum (Jordan & Brayton, 1877).
** Greater jumprock, Moxostoma lachneri Robins & Raney, 1956.
** Shorthead redhorse, Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Lesueur, 1817).
** Mascota jumprock, Moxostoma mascotae Regan, 1907.
** V-lip redhorse, Moxostoma pappillosum (Cope, 1870).
** Pealip redhorse, Moxostoma pisolabrum Trautman & Martin, 1951.
** Blacktail redhorse, Moxostoma poecilurum (Jordan, 1877).
** Smallfin redhorse, Moxostoma robustum (Cope, 1870).
** Striped jumprock, Moxostoma rupiscartes Jordan & Jenkins, 1889.
** Greater redhorse, Moxostoma valenciennesi Jordan, 1885.
Subfamily Cycleptinae
* Genus Cycleptus
** Blue sucker, Cycleptus elongatus (Lesueur, 1817).
** southeastern blue sucker, Cycleptus meridionalis Burr & Mayden, 1999.
Subfamily Ictiobinae
* Genus †Amyzon
** †Amyzon aggregatum (Wilson, 1977)
** †Amyzon brevipinne (Cope, 1894)
** †Amyzon commune (Cope, 1874)
** †Amyzon mentale (Cope, 1872)
* Genus Carpiodes
** River carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque, 1820).
** Quillback, Carpiodes cyprinus (Lesueur, 1817).
** Carpiodes dialuzona Van Hasselt, 1823.
** Highfin carpsucker, Carpiodes velifer (Rafinesque, 1820).
* Genus Ictiobus
** Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque, 1818).
** Bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus (Valenciennes, 1844).
** Fleshylip buffalo, Ictiobus labiosus (Meek, 1904).
** Usumacinta buffalo, Ictiobus meridionalis (Burr & Mayden, 1999).
** Black buffalo, Ictiobus Niger (Rafinesque, 1819).
Subfamily Myxocyprininae
* Genus Myxocyprinus
** Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Bleeker, 1865).

References

  • 1991. Comments on the Genus Amyzon (Family Catostomidae) Journal of Paleontology 654:678-686

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