Fisher

Fisher

[fish-er]
Ames, Fisher, 1758-1808, American political leader, b. Dedham, Mass.; son of Nathaniel Ames. Admitted to the bar in 1781, he began political pamphleteering and by a speech in the Massachusetts convention that ratified the federal Constitution started on the road to becoming a leading Federalist. As a Congressman (1789-97) and after his retirement he was high in party councils, a staunch follower of Hamilton, and a vicious opponent of Jefferson. Of Ames's able speeches perhaps the best known was that made in 1796 when the House was disposed to nullify Jay's Treaty by withholding appropriations; he spoke for the treaty. He was the archetype of the New England conservative of his period, a strong proponent of order and of the rights of property.

See biography by W. E. Bernhard (1965).

Fisher, Andrew, 1862-1928, Australian statesman. He emigrated from Scotland to Australia in 1885, helped organize the Australian Labour party, and served three times as Labour prime minister of Australia (1908-9, 1910-13, and 1914-15). He guided the passage of much social legislation in the fields of taxation, banking, and land policy. After his last ministry he served as high commissioner in London.
Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, 1879-1958, American novelist and juvenile writer, b. Lawrence, Kans., grad. Ohio State, 1899, Ph.D. Columbia, 1904. Her novels include The Bent Twig (1915), The Deepening Stream (1930), Seasoned Timber (1939), and Four-square (1949). She also wrote short stories; Vermont Tradition (1953), personal views of Vermont life; and several notable juvenile books, including Understood Betsy (1916) and Something Old, Something New (1949).
Fisher, Geoffrey Francis, 1887-1972, archbishop of Canterbury (1945-61). He was educated at Oxford and ordained a priest in 1913. He served as assistant master of Marlborough College (1911-14) and as headmaster of Repton School (1914-32). In 1932 he became bishop of Chester; from 1939 to 1945 he was bishop of London. As archbishop of Canterbury (1945-61) he traveled widely in the interest of church unity. His visit to the pope in 1960 was the first by the archbishop of Canterbury since the Reformation. He was president of the World Council of Churches from 1946 to 1954. Upon his retirement in 1961 he was raised to the peerage.
Fisher, Irving, 1867-1947, American economist, b. Saugerties, N.Y., Ph.D. Yale, 1891. He began teaching at Yale in 1890 and was active there until 1935. His earliest work was in mathematics, and he made a distinguished contribution to mathematical economic theory. He was noted chiefly for his studies in managed currency, in which he set forth the theory of the "compensated dollar" whereby purchasing power might be stabilized. His expansion of interest theory included the theory of investment appraisal, which relied on a person's willingness to sacrifice present for future income. He was also one of the first to work out a numbered index system for filing. Fisher's interests were wide; they included activities in academic, business, welfare, and public organizations, especially public health societies. Important among his many books are Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices (1892), Appreciation and Interest (1896), The Nature of Capital and Income (1906), The Rate of Interest (1907), The Making of Index Numbers (1922), and Theory of Interest (1930).

See biography by his son, I. N. Fisher (1956).

Fisher, John (Saint John Fisher), c.1469-1535, English prelate, cardinal, bishop of Rochester (1504-34). Known for his scholarship at Cambridge, he was chosen confessor to Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII. As vice chancellor of the university (1501-4) and chancellor thereafter, he helped carry out her plans for establishing St. John's College and Christ's College. As bishop he was firm in his denunciation of abuses by the clergy; however, he resisted reforms, like those of Martin Luther, that affected doctrines of the church. Giving his support to the new learning, he brought Erasmus to lecture at the university. Fisher, who was confessor to Katharine of Aragón, was the only English bishop to oppose the invalidation of the marriage of Henry VIII and Katharine. He refused to acknowledge the king as supreme head of the church and to accede to the Act of Succession, which declared Katharine's child (Mary I) illegitimate. In 1534 he was imprisoned in the Tower and deprived of his bishopric. Pope Paul III, to show his support, created Fisher a cardinal in May, 1535. Henry, infuriated, pushed the trial forward. A fortnight before Sir Thomas More was executed, Fisher was beheaded on Tower Hill. He was canonized as a martyr in 1935. Most of the Latin writings that he left were published in 1597. Some of his English works still remain in manuscript. Feast: July 9.

See T. Bayly, The Life and Death of That Renowned John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester (1635, new ed. 1893); B. Bradshaw and D. Eamon, ed., Humanism, Reform and the Reformation: The Career of Bishop John Fisher (1989); biography by E. E. Reynolds (1955); study by E. L. Surtz (1967).

Fisher, John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron, 1841-1920, British admiral. Entering the navy in 1854, he specialized in gunnery and in 1872 was responsible for instituting the developmental work that perfected the torpedo. He was director of ordnance and torpedoes at the admiralty (1886-90), third sea lord and controller of the navy (1892-97), and commander in chief of the Mediterranean fleet (1899-1902). As second sea lord (1902-3) he reorganized and improved the method of training naval officers. Returning to the admiralty as first sea lord (1904), Fisher redistributed British naval forces to meet the newly recognized threat from Germany. In 1905 he began construction of the Dreadnought (see battleship) and thereafter pressed hard for an expanded program of naval construction. He encouraged the development of submarines and supervised the conversion of the navy from coal-fired to oil-fired steam power. Created a baron in 1909, Fisher resigned as first sea lord in 1910 but returned to that position after the outbreak (1914) of World War I. He advocated an amphibious strike against Germany in the Baltic but opposed the Dardanelles expedition and resigned (1915) because of it. His reforms proved crucial to Britain's wartime naval supremacy.

See his correspondence, ed. by A. J. Marder (3 vol., 1952-59); biographies by R. H. Bacon (1929), R. A. Hough (1969), R. F. Mackay (1973), and J. Morris (1995); A. J. Marder, From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow (5 vol., 1961-70).

Fisher, M. F. K. (Mary Frances Kennedy Fisher), 1908-92, American culinary writer, b. Albion, Mich. Raised in California, Fisher lived in France for three years, where she was inspired by Brillat-Savarin's philosophy of life and translated his The Physiology of Taste (1949). Her writings are more than just recipes; they are culinary essays written in a distinctively graceful literary style that also offer philosophical reflections, reminiscences, and anecdotes. Her books include Serve It Forth (1937), How to Cook a Wolf (1942), The Gastronomical Me (1943), Time-Life's The Cooking of Provincial France (1968), and With Bold Knife and Fork (1979). Fisher's posthumously published trilogy of reminiscences are To Begin Again (1992), Stay Me, Oh Comfort Me (1993), and Last House (1995).

See her letters ed. by N. K. Barr, M. Moran, and P. Moran (1997); autobiographical writings ed. by D. Gioia (1997); biography by J. Reardon (2004).

Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer, 1890-1962, English statistician and geneticist, b. East Finchley, Middlesex, England; educated at Cambridge (1909-1915; Sc.D., 1926). From 1919 to 1933 he worked at the Rothamsted Experimental Station. He was professor of genetics at University College, London (1933-43) and at Cambridge (1943-57) and conducted research at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Adelaide, Australia from 1957 until his death. He revolutionized inferential statistics, developing the concepts of analysis of variants and factorial experimentation. He wrote the classic Statistical Methods for Research Workers (1925) and Design of Experiments and Statistical Methods (1934). He also made extraordinary contributions to the field of genetics and statistically reconciled the principals of Mendelian inheritance with Darwin's notion of natural selection. He wrote the seminal work The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (1930).

See J. F. Box, The Life of a Scientist (1978); R. A. Fisher, Statistical Inference and Analysis (1990; selected correspondence).

fisher, name of a large North American marten, Martes pennanti. This carnivorous, largely arboreal mammal is found in hardwood forests of Canada, the extreme N United States, and mountain ranges of the W United States. Fishers have dark brown fur shading to black and frosted with white-tipped hairs. Males are over 3 ft (90 cm) long, including the bushy tail, which may reach 15 in. (38 cm), and weigh 6 to 12 lb (1.8-3.6 kg); females weigh about half as much. Active both by night and by day, on the ground and in trees, the fisher makes its den in a hollow tree or a hole in the ground. It feeds on small mammals, birds, carrion, and fruits. Despite its name, it does not catch fish, although it will eat them. It is one of the few animals that eats porcupines, which it attacks by striking at the unprotected underparts. The fisher is not abundant and is difficult to trap; its beautiful fur brings high prices. Once considered threatened with extinction, fishers are now increasing in numbers. They are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Carnivora, family Mustelidae.
Fisher, Fort: see Fort Fisher.

Rare species of marten (Martes pennanti, family Mustelidae) found in northern forests of North America. The fisher is related to weasels and is similarly shaped. It has a bushy tail, tapered muzzle and low, rounded ears. Adults are usually 20–25 in. (50–63 cm) long, excluding the 13–17-in. (33–43-cm) tail, and weigh 3–15 lb (1.4–6.8 kg). Fishers hunt on the ground and in trees, attacking various rodents and other animals; they also eat fruits and sometimes nuts. It has been trapped for its valuable brownish black fur.

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(born Feb. 17, 1890, East Finchley, Middlesex, Eng.—died July 29, 1962, Adelaide, S.Aus., Austl.) British statistician and geneticist. As statistician for an agricultural research institute, he investigated the linkage of genes for different traits. To avoid unintentional bias in selection of materials used in experiments, he introduced the principle of randomization. It states that before an experimental effect can be attributed to a given cause or treatment, the experiment must be repeated on control units of the material and that all material used in experiments must be selected at random from the whole population it intends to represent. He also developed the concept of the analysis of variance, a statistical procedure used to design experiments that answer several questions at once.

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(born Feb. 27, 1867, Saugerties, N.Y., U.S.—died April 29, 1947, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. economist best known for his work in the field of capital theory. He received his Ph.D. from Yale University. As a professor at Yale (1892–1935), he examined the relationship between changes in the quantity of money and the general level of prices. He also promoted the concept of the “compensated dollar”—a dollar of constant purchasing power, defined in terms of an index of commodity prices rather than in terms of a given weight of gold. Seealso price index.

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(born Feb. 17, 1890, East Finchley, Middlesex, Eng.—died July 29, 1962, Adelaide, S.Aus., Austl.) British statistician and geneticist. As statistician for an agricultural research institute, he investigated the linkage of genes for different traits. To avoid unintentional bias in selection of materials used in experiments, he introduced the principle of randomization. It states that before an experimental effect can be attributed to a given cause or treatment, the experiment must be repeated on control units of the material and that all material used in experiments must be selected at random from the whole population it intends to represent. He also developed the concept of the analysis of variance, a statistical procedure used to design experiments that answer several questions at once.

Learn more about Fisher, Sir R(onald) A(ylmer) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 27, 1867, Saugerties, N.Y., U.S.—died April 29, 1947, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. economist best known for his work in the field of capital theory. He received his Ph.D. from Yale University. As a professor at Yale (1892–1935), he examined the relationship between changes in the quantity of money and the general level of prices. He also promoted the concept of the “compensated dollar”—a dollar of constant purchasing power, defined in terms of an index of commodity prices rather than in terms of a given weight of gold. Seealso price index.

Learn more about Fisher, Irving with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 9, 1758, Dedham, Mass.—died July 4, 1808, Dedham, Mass., U.S.) U.S. essayist and Federalist politician. He graduated from Harvard College in 1774 and taught school for five years before turning to the law; he was admitted to the bar in 1781. Supporting the creation of a strong central government, Ames argued for ratification of the new U.S. Constitution at the Massachusetts constitutional convention. He became known for his uncompromising advocacy of the rights of property and his protective attitude toward commercial interests, which he defended in trenchant writing and commanding speech. In 1788 he defeated Samuel Adams for a seat in the first session of the U.S. House of Representatives; he was reelected three times. His eloquent support of the treaty negotiated by John Jay to preserve peace with England (1794) convinced the House to pass an enabling appropriation.

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(born April 9, 1758, Dedham, Mass.—died July 4, 1808, Dedham, Mass., U.S.) U.S. essayist and Federalist politician. He graduated from Harvard College in 1774 and taught school for five years before turning to the law; he was admitted to the bar in 1781. Supporting the creation of a strong central government, Ames argued for ratification of the new U.S. Constitution at the Massachusetts constitutional convention. He became known for his uncompromising advocacy of the rights of property and his protective attitude toward commercial interests, which he defended in trenchant writing and commanding speech. In 1788 he defeated Samuel Adams for a seat in the first session of the U.S. House of Representatives; he was reelected three times. His eloquent support of the treaty negotiated by John Jay to preserve peace with England (1794) convinced the House to pass an enabling appropriation.

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Fisher is a town in Poinsett County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 265 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Fisher is located at (35.491555, -90.972297).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 km² (0.3 mi²), all land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 265 people, 111 households, and 74 families residing in the town. The population density was 319.7/km² (840.6/mi²). There were 124 housing units at an average density of 149.6/km² (393.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.85% White, 1.51% Black or African American, 2.26% from other races, and 0.38% from two or more races. 2.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 111 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.3% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the town the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $19,286, and the median income for a family was $24,500. Males had a median income of $22,500 versus $12,656 for females. The per capita income for the town was $10,334. About 24.4% of families and 29.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.8% of those under the age of eighteen and 34.3% of those sixty five or over.

References

External links

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