Definitions

first-dollar cove-rage

Zimbabwean dollar

The dollar is the currency of Zimbabwe. It is subdivided into 100 cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies.

History

First dollar

The first Zimbabwean dollar was introduced in 1980 and replaced the Rhodesian dollar at par. The initial ISO 4217 code was ZWD. At the time of its introduction, the Zimbabwean dollar was worth more than the U.S. dollar, with ZWD 1 = USD 1.47. However, the currency's value eroded rapidly over the years. On 26 July 2006, the parallel market value of the Zimbabwean dollar fell to one million to the British pound.

Second dollar

In October 2005, the head of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Dr. Gideon Gono, announced "Zimbabwe will have a new currency next year." New banknotes and coins were to replace the then current Zimbabwean dollar. Gono did not provide a name for this new currency. In June 2006, Deputy Finance Minister David Chapfika stated that Zimbabwe had to achieve macroeconomic stability (i.e., double digit inflation) before any new currency was introduced.

The dollar was redenominated on 1 August 2006 at the rate of 1 revalued dollar = 1,000 old dollars. The new dollar is subdivided into 100 cents, although cents are not used in practice. Together with the redenomination, the government devalued the dollar by 60 percent vs. the US dollar (see exchange rate history table below), from 101,000 old dollars (101 revalued) to 250 revalued dollars. ISO originally assigned a new currency code of ZWN to this redenominated currency, but the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe could not deal with a currency change. Therefore the currency code remains 'ZWD'.

The revaluation campaign, which Gideon Gono named "Operation Sunrise" was completed on 21 August 2006. It was estimated that some ten trillion old Zimbabwe dollars (22% of the money supply) were not redeemed during this period.

On 12 December 2006, Dr. Gono hinted in a memorandum to banks and other financial institutions that he would lay out the next phase of his monetary reforms dubbed Project Sunrise Two when he announced the monetary policy review statement in January 2007. It was not possible to get immediate confirmation from Gono's office whether the memorandum was advice to banks that he would be launching the new currency in January. But the chief executive officer of one of the country's largest banks said industry players had understood the governor's memo to mean new money would be introduced next month. A possible name appeared to be "ivhu", which means "soil" in Shona.

On 2 February 2007, it was revealed that a new (third) dollar would be released "soon" and gave some details of the new banknotes (see below). However, given that inflation remains in four digits, these banknotes are likely to remain in storage for the foreseeable future.

In February 2007, the central bank of Zimbabwe declared inflation "illegal", outlawing any raise in prices on certain commodities between 1 March and 30 June 2007. Officials have arrested executives of some Zimbabwean companies for increasing prices on their products. Economists generally suspect that such measures will be ineffective at eliminating the problem in the long term. On 15 June 2007, economist Eddie Cross reported that "There is talk that the Reserve Bank will cut another three zeros off our currency next week and this would mean that one Zimbabwe dollar would now equal one million of the "old" dollars. Chaos reigns in commerce and industry and those in the public sector are frantic.

On 6 September 2007 the Zimbabwe dollar was devalued by 92%, to give an official exchange rate of ZW$30,000 to US$1, although the black market exchange rate was estimated to be ZW$600,000 to US$1.

Meanwhile the WM/Reuters company introduced a notional exchange rate (ISO ZWD) which more accurately reflected black market exchange rates. Since there was a shortage of foreign exchange in the country the official rate was nearly impossible to obtain. The method of calculation was based on Purchasing Power Parity utilizing the dual listing of companies on the Harare (ZH) and London Stock exchanges (LN).

Inflation

Rampant inflation and the collapse of the economy have severely devalued the currency, with many organizations using the US dollar, the euro, the pound sterling, or the South African rand instead. Early in the 21st century, Zimbabwe started to experience hyperinflation. Inflation reached 624% in early 2004, then fell back to low triple digits before surging to 1,281.1% in December 2006.

Inflation reached another record high of 3714% (year-on-year) in April 2007. The monthly rate for April 2007 exceeded 100%, implying that inflation may soon exceed all forecasts, as 100% monthly inflation over sustained 12 months would produce annual inflation of over 400,000%. Mid-year inflation for 2007 has been breaching records as inflation for May 2007 was estimated at 4,530% (year-on-year).

On 21 June 2007, the United States ambassador to Zimbabwe, Christopher Dell, told The Guardian newspaper that inflation could reach 1.5 million percent by the end of the year. The unofficial inflation rate at that time was above 11,000%, and the black-market exchange rate was Z$400,000 to the pound.

On 13 July 2007, the Zimbabwean government said it had temporarily stopped publishing (official) inflation figures, a move that observers said was meant to draw attention away from "runaway inflation which has come to symbolise the country's unprecedented economic meltdown.

On 27 July 2007, the Consumer Council of Zimbabwe (CCZ) said its recent calculations for the monthly expenditure for an urban family of six showed that inflation for the month of June was more than 13,000%. The Central Statistical Office (CSO), the official source of Consumer Price Index numbers, had not released its figures since February (2007) when it reported annual inflation at 1,729%.

In September 2007, the Central Statistical Office announced an official inflation rate of 6,592.8% for August 2007. Private estimates were as high as 20,000%. In October 2007, they announced an official inflation rate of 7,892.1% for September 2007. In November 2007, they announced an official inflation rate of 14,840.5% for October 2007.

Hyperinflation

On 27 November 2007, the chief statistician of the Central Statistical Office, Moffat Nyoni, announced that it would be impossible to calculate the inflation rate of the dollar any further. This was due to the lack of availability of basic goods, and subsequent lack of information from which to calculate the inflation rate; plus, most computers had an insufficient number of digits and software. The International Monetary Fund has stated that inflation is predicted to rise to 100,000% per annum.

On 14 February 2008, the Central Statistical Office announced that the inflation rate for December 2007 was 66,212.3%, and the unofficial exchange rate was Z$7.1 million to the US$1.

On 20 February 2008, the Central Statistical Office said that officially, inflation has in January 2008 gone past the 100,000% mark to 100,580.2%.

On 4 April 2008, the Financial Gazette (FinGaz) reported that officially, inflation in February 2008 jumped to 164,900.3%. On 15 May 2008, the Zimbabwe Independent reported that officially, inflation in March 2008 jumped to 355,000%.

On 21 May 2008, SW Radio Africa reported that, according to an independent financial assessment inflation in May 2008 jumped to 1,063,572.6%. The state statistical service has said there are not enough goods in the shortage-stricken shops to calculate any new (official) figures.

On 26 June 2008, the Zimbabwe Independent reported that, latest figures from the Central Statistical Offices (CSO) showed that annual inflation rose by 7,336,000 percentage points to 9,030,000% by June 20 and was set to end the month at well above 10,500,000%.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported that inflation was likely to be two million percent in May 2008 and ten to fifteen million percent in June 2008, according to John Robertson, a respected Zimbabwean economist. Robertson estimated inflation in July 2008 to be forty to fifty million percent. Inflation can only be estimated because of the impossibility of following the cost of individual goods.

According to Central Statistical Office statistics, annual inflation rate rose to 231 million percent in July 2008. The month-on-month rate rose to 2,600.2%.

Money supply (2006–2008)

On 16 February 2006, the governor of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Gideon Gono, announced that the government had printed ZW$20.5 trillion in order to buy foreign currency to pay off IMF arrears. In early May 2006, Zimbabwe's government announced that they would produce another ZW$60 trillion. The additional currency was required to finance the recent 300% salary increase for soldiers and policemen and 200% increase for other civil servants. The money was not budgeted for the current fiscal year, and the government did not say where it would come from. On 29 May, Reserve Bank officials told IRIN that plans to print about ZW$60 trillion (about US$592.9 million at official rates) were briefly delayed after the government failed to secure foreign currency to buy ink and special paper for printing money.

In late August 2006, it was reported that about ZW$10 trillion old dollars (22% of the money supply) had not been exchanged for revalued dollars. These bearer cheques were demonetized.

On 27 June 2007, it was announced that central bank governor Gideon Gono had been ordered by President Robert Mugabe to print an additional ZWD$1 trillion to cater for civil servants' and soldiers' salaries that were hiked by 600% and 900% respectively.

On 28 July 2007, it was reported that Mugabe has said that Zimbabwe will go on printing money if there is not enough for underfunded municipal projects.

On 30 August 2007, it was reported that an additional ZW$3 trillion had been printed to pay for 500,000 scotch carts and 800,000 ox-drawn ploughs plus an unspecified number of cattle.

On 3 September 2007, it was reported that that the black market in Zimbabwe is once again booming despite price controls. People who previously were employed for a paltry US$11 (ZW$2 Million) a month are now able to turn as much as US$166 (ZW$30 Million) just through black market trading.

On 24 November 2007, it was reported that money supply was now $58 trillion revalued Zimbabwean dollars (ZWD) ($41 million US at parallel rates). However, Zimbabwe banks could only account for $1 to $2 trillion of those dollars, meaning that members of the public were holding $56 to $57 trillion in cash.

On 4 January 2008, it was reported that money supply had been increased by $33 trillion (to $100 trillion) revalued Zimbabwean dollars (ZWD) Further, the demonetization of the $200,000 bearer cheques was put on hold, thus increasing the money supply.

The planned issue of additional banknotes (denominations of ZWD 1, 5, and 10 Million) on 18 January 2008 will increase the money supply by an unknown amount.

On 21 January 2008, it was reported, by Gideon Gono, that the money supply had been increased to ZW$170 trillion since the middle of December. Further, Gono expected it to reach $800 trillion by 28 January 2008.

On 1 March 2008, it was reported that documents obtained by The Sunday Times show the Munich company Giesecke & Devrient (G&D) was receiving more than €500,000 (£382,000) a week for delivering bank notes at the astonishing rate of Z$170 trillion a week.

"The regime is surviving by printing money," said Martin Rupiya, professor of war and security studies at the University of Zimbabwe. "At this stage there is no other way."

According to a source at the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, G&D was delivering 432,000 sheets of banknotes every week to Fidelity printers in Harare, where they were stamped with the denomination. Each sheet contains 40 notes and the current production is entirely in Z$10M notes. On July 1, 2008, Giesecke & Devrient decided they would no longer print bank notes for Zimbabwe, bowing to pressure from the German government.

In the Guardian, on 18 July 2008, a report on Zimbabwe's inflation, said that an egg costs ZW$50 billion (GBP 0.17, USD 0.32), and it showed adverts for prizes of Z$100 trillion in a Zimbabwean derby and ZW$1.2 quadrillion ($1,200,000,000,000,000.00: ~GBP 2,100; USD 4,200) in a lottery. It also showed a monthly war pension currently is ZW$109 billion (GBP 0.37, USD 0.74), shops can only cash cheques if the customer writes double the amount, because the cost will go up by the time the cheque has cleared, and people can only withdraw a maximum of ZW$100 billion from cashpoints.

On 23 July 2008, an Austro-Hungarian company based in Vienna confirmed that it is providing the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe with the licences and software required to design and print Zimbabwe currency. The company, named Jura JSP, said it would consider ending its supply of licences and software if the European Union required it to do so. Without the licences and software, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe may be unable to print notes in larger denominations than are already in circulation.

On 24 July 2008, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe announced that "appropriate measures are being put in place to address the current setbacks being faced on the currency front, as well as on financial and accounting systems." It promised that in "the next few days" it would institute changes to the minimum cash withdrawal limits and IT systems' constraints. Currently, the government limits cash withdrawals to ZW$100 billion per day, which is less than the cost of a loaf of bread. IT systems cannot handle such large numbers; the automated teller machines for one major bank give a "data overflow error" and freeze customers attempt to withdraw money with so many zeros. That same day, the Institute of Commercial Management reported that ZW$1.2 trillion is worth the same as one British pound.

Third dollar

On July 30, 2008, Gono announced that the Zimbabwean dollar would be redenominated. Effective August 1, 2008, ZW$10 billion would be worth ZW$1. The planned denominations to be issued are coins valued Z$5, Z$10 and Z$25 and banknotes worth Z$5, Z$10, Z$20, Z$100 and Z$500. While the German firm of Giesecke & Devrient is no longer printing Zimbabwean currency, The Daily Telegraph reported that the new currency was printed before the relationship was severed and has been kept in storage since then.

On September 13 because of cash shortages and worthless Zimbabwean currency, foreign currency was legalised as a de facto currency.

Date 2006 (July)
Money Supply (ZWD) 45 Trillion
Date 2006 (Aug) 2006 (Sept) 2007 (Nov) 2007 (Dec) 2008
(Jan 21)
2008
(Jan 28)
2008
(March)
2008 (June) 2008 (-)
Money Supply
(Revalued ZWD)
45 Billion, 35 Billion 58 Trillion;
67 Trillion
100 Trillion 170 Trillion 800 Trillion 25 Quadrillion more than 900 Quadrillion -

Coins

In 1980, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 cents and 1 dollar. The 1 cent coin was struck in bronze, with the others struck in cupro-nickel. In 1989, bronze-plated steel replaced bronze. A 2 dollar coin was introduced in 1997. In 2001, nickel-plated steel replaced cupro-nickel in the 10, 20 and 50 cents and 1 dollar, and a bimetallic 5 dollar coin was introduced. These coins remain legal tender but, due to their minuscule value, they only function as gambling tokens in Zimbabwean casinos.

Plans by the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, for new Z$5,000 and Z$10,000 coins were announced in June 2005. However, the coins never appeared.

All old coins were reintroduced at face value to the third dollar in Aug 2008 and new $10 and $25 coins were introduced, these were minted in 2003 but only issued with the redenomination.

Banknotes, traveller's cheques and bearer cheques

First dollar

In 1980, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe introduced notes in denominations of 2, 5, 10 and 20 dollars. 50 dollar notes were introduced in 1994, followed by 100 dollars in 1995, 500 dollars in 2001 and 1000 dollars in 2003.

In 2003, with mounting inflation, the Reserve Bank started issuing travelers cheques in denominations of 1000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 and 100,000 dollars. These were superseded later the same year by bearer cheques, initially in denominations of 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 dollars, with cheques for 50,000 and 100,000 dollars following in 2006.

Second dollar

On 1 August 2006, the new currency was introduced, with bearer cheques in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 cents, 1, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 dollars. There is also a 5 dollar denomination although the note does not appear on any of the Reserve Bank advertisements. Bearer cheques of 5,000 dollars (dated 1 February 2007) and 50,000 (dated 1 March 2007) were issued in March 2007. Bearer cheques of 200,000 (dated 1 August 2007) were issued in August 2007.

On 14 November 2007, it was reported that the RBZ was planning to issue more bearer cheques in denominations of 500,000 and 1 million revalued Zimbabwe dollars. These were expected to be issued in December 2007. Bearer cheques denominated below ZWD 10,000 are to be discontinued.

On December 19, 2007, it was reported by Gideon Gono that new bearer cheques (Z$250,000 ; Z$500,000 ; and Z$750,000) had been produced and would be released on December 20, 2007. Additionally, the current high value bearer cheques (Z$200,000) would be demonetized as of January 01, 2008. However, due to ongoing problems, plans to demonetize this note were put on hold at the end of December.

Less than a month after announcing a similar move, Gideon Gono said the new notes would provide much needed relief to consumers who often have to go shopping with sacks of cash.

On January 16, 2008, it was reported to a press conference that "With effect from Friday (January 18), the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe is releasing the following bearer cheques into circulation: one million dollars (officially worth about US$33/22 euros but worth about 50c at the parallel rate), five million dollars and 10 million dollars," by Reserve Bank Governor Gono.

"Further to provide relief and convenience to the transacting public, daily cash withdrawals have been increased from the current Z$50 million to Z$500 million per individual. This takes effect from Friday," he said.

On 4 April 2008, it was reported by the Zim Independent and Zim Online that twenty five million dollar and fifty million dollar bearer cheque was being issued as of 4 April. The RBZ also increased the maximum withdrawal limit for individuals to $5 billion a day.

On May 5, 2008, it was announced that one hundred million dollar and two hundred and fifty million dollar bearer cheques were to be issued as of May 6. It was also announced that the official exchange rate was to be floated.

On May 15, 2008, it was announced that five hundred million dollar bearer cheques were to be issued as of May 20. It was also announced that agro cheques in the amounts of 5, 25, and 50 billion dollars would be issued on the same day. All of these will be dated to expire at the end of 2008.

On July 14, 2008, the Los Angeles Times reported that a German company has stopped supplying bank note paper to Fidelity Printers & Refiners, the Zimbabwean-government-owned company that prints Zimbabwean currency. Virtually incessant use of the currency-printing presses have caused many of the machines to break down, and repair parts are no longer being shipped to Zimbabwe to repair the machines.

On July 19, 2008, it was announced that agro cheques in the amount of 100 billion dollars were to be issued as of July 21.

Third dollar

Since the Zimbabwean dollar was revalued in August 2006, there were repeated discussions and proposals regarding a further revaluation. As early as the beginning of 2007 it appeared that a revaluation was planned with new banknote designs being commissioned New plans were announced in October 2007 They were initially postponed until 2008 before, in November 2007, the revaluation was described as "imminent and would remove as many as four zeros from the currency and would be called Sunrise 2. However, on December 18, 2007, it was reported that a further printing of the current Z$200,000 bearer cheques had been produced, seemingly instead of revaluing. Further new issues of bearer cheques have since taken place.

On July 30, 2008 the RBZ announced a new currency, effective August 1, 2008, removing 10 zeros from the monetary value, by "a factor of 1 to 10".. Old coins from the first dollar in the values of 10c, 20c, 50c, $1, $2, and $5 became legal tender taking the value in new currency(thus, effectively increasing their value 10 trillion-fold), with additional $10 and $25 coins introduced, and notes in the denominations of $1, $5, $10, $20, $100 and $500. The old bearer cheques and agro cheques would continue to circulate alongside the new notes until December 31, 2008, with shops displaying prices in both old and new currency.

On September 19, 2008, a $1,000 banknote was introduced by the RBZ.

On September 29, 2008, as the unofficial exchange rate surpassed 270,000 ZWD to the US dollar, the RBZ introduced new banknotes in the denominations of $10000 and $20000.

Exchange rate history

This table shows a condensed history of the foreign exchange rate:
Year 1983 1997 2000 2002 (Jun) 2005 (Mar) 2006 (Jan) 2006 (July)
First ZWD per 1 USD 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 500,000+
Year 2006 (Aug) 2006 (Sept) 2006 (Dec) 2007 (Jan) 2007 (Feb) 2007 (Mar) 2007 (Apr) 2007 (May) 2007 (June) 2007 (July)
Second ZWD
per 1 USD
650 1,000 3,000 4,800 7,500 26,000 35,000 50,000 400,000 300,000
Year 2007 (Aug) 2007 (Sept) 2007 (Oct) 2007 (Nov) 2007 (Dec) 2008 (Jan) 2008 (Feb) 2008 (Mar) 2008 (April) 2008 (May)
Second ZWD
per 1 USD
200,000 600,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 4,000,000 (EFTS) and
~2,000,000 (cash)
see Note.
6,000,000 16,000,000 and
20,000,000 (for large amounts)
70,000,000 100,000,000 777,500,000
Year 2008 (June) 2008 (July)
Second ZWD
per 1 USD
40,928,000,000 758,530,000,000
Year 2008 (August) 2008 (Sept) 2008 (Oct)
Third ZWD
per 1 USD
1,780 590,000 4,200,000
Note: Due to the December 2007 banknote shortage, funds transferred via Electronic Funds Transfer Systems (EFTS) bore a premium rate of about $4 million, while the cash transaction rate varied around $2 million.

First dollar

This table shows in more detail the historical value of one U.S. dollar in Zimbabwean dollars:
Date Official Rate Parallel Rate Notes
1978 R$0.6788 (Apr) n/a R$ pegged to US$
1980 R$0.68 (Mar) n/a R$ tied to basket of FRF, DEM, ZAR, CHF, GBP, USD
April 18, 1980 - Independence (1 Z$ = 1 R$)
1982 0.8925 to 0.9140 (Dec) - ZWD devalued by 16.5%
1983 0.96135 (Jan) up to 3.18 (July) ZWD devalued by 5%
Parallel rate highly variable - premium up to 231%
1983 (Aug) to 1993 (Dec) 0.96135 - 6.82 Flexible basket; dual rates; 20% tax on outgoing payments
1994 6.82 (Jan) 8.36 (Oct) Floating official rate (July 1) ; dual rates; ZWD devalued by 17%
1995 8.26 (Jan) 8.85 (Oct) floating official rate; dual rates; rates unified 1998 (Dec)
1996 9.13 (Jan) 10.52 (Oct)
1997 10.50 (Jan) 12.00 (Jan); 25.00 (Nov)
1998 18.00 (Jan) 16.65 (Jun); 19.00 (Jul); 23.50
1999 36.23 (Jan) 38.30 (Sep) On March 31, 1999, the Official Exchange Rate was pegged at ZWD 38 per USD; the parallel market had re-emerged by December 1999.
2000 38 to 55 56 to 62 (Jul); 65 to 70 (Aug.) In August 2000, the Official Exchange Rate was pegged at ZWD 50 , then ZWD 51 and finally at ZWD 55 per USD; parallel black market rates were at a large premium; in November, foreign exchange bureaus were closed.
2001 55 70 (Jan); 80 (Feb); 100 (Mar); 120 (Apr); 140 (May); 160 (Jun); 250 (Jul); 300 (Aug); 400 (Sep); 300 (Oct); 320 (Nov); 340 (Dec) In June, the official rate became a crawling peg rate.
2002 55 380 (Jan) to 710 (Jun), 1400 (Jul) to 1740 (Oct) to 1400 (Dec) In 2002 the parallel black market for foreign exchange mushroomed.
2003 55 (Jan); 824 (Feb) 1400 (Jan); 1450 (Feb); 2300 (May); 3000 (Jul); 6000 (Aug); 6400 (Oct); 6000 (Nov) In February 2003, the Official Exchange Rate was re-pegged at ZWD 824 per US $
2004 824 (Jan 1); 4196 (Jan 12) to 5730 (Dec) 5500 (Jan 1) to 6000 (Dec) In January 2004, semiweekly (RBZ-controlled) currency auctions were set up to determine the official rate.
2005 5,730 (January); 6,200 (March); 9,000 (May); 10,800 (July 18); 17,600 (July 25); 24,500 (August 25); 26,003 (September); 26,003 (October); 60,000 (Nov); 84,588 (Dec 30) 6,400 (January); 14,000 (March); 20,000 (May); 25,000 (July 18); 45,000 (July 25); 45,000 (August 25); 75,000 (September); 80,000 to 100,000 (October); 90,000 (Nov); 96,000 (Dec 30) August 24: Zimbabwean dollar becomes least valued currency unit
In November 2005, the regular currency auctions were discontinued and the RBZ announced that "market factors" would control the exchange rate.
2006 (to July 31) 85,158 (Jan 3); 99,201.58 (Jan 24); 101,195.54 (Apr 28) 100,000 (Jan 6); 106,050 (Jan 19); 115,000 (Jan 20); 125,000 to 150,000 (Jan 25); 175,000 to 190,000 (Feb 24); 205,000 to 220,000 (Mar 03); 220,000 to 230,000 (April 13); 300,000 to 310,000 (May 25); 315,000 (June 09); 340,000 to 350,000 (June 16); 400,000 (June 21); 450,000 (July 01); 520,000 (July 09); 550,000 (July 27) Economists predict an unofficial rate of nearly ZWD 250,000 to the US dollar by mid-2006.
Jan 24 - RBZ caps daily variance of official exchange rate based on volume traded. The ZWD is able to fluctuate (from its average rate) in a daily band of: 0 % (under USD 5 million); 1 % (USD 5 to 10 million); 1.5 % (USD 10 to 15 million); or 2 % (exceeds USD 15 million). This effectively froze the official exchange rate.

Second dollar

Date Official Rate
(Revalued dollar)
Parallel Rate
(Revalued dollar)
Notes
2006 August 250 (250,000 old) 550 (Aug 01); 650 (Aug 03); 650 to 700 (Aug 24) August 1: RBZ revalues the Zim dollar. 1,000 Old Zim dollars become 1 revalued Zim dollar. The official exchange rate is set to 250 revalued Zim dollars per 1 US dollar. (Parallel rate soars to over 600 revalued dollars per 1 US dollar)
September 700 to 800 (Sep 08 - high volume transactions) ; 850 (Sep 14); 1,200 to 1,300(Sep 28) or 1,500 (Sep 29 - high volume transactions)
October 1,500 (Oct 12);
November 1,700 (Nov 6); 2,000 (Nov 19) ; 2,400 (Nov 29);
December 3,000 (Dec. 25)
2007 January 250 3,200 (11th ); 3,500 (18th ); 4,000 (20th ); 4,200 (23nd ); 6,000 (26th )
February 4,800 (2nd ); 5,000 (12th ); 6,600 (23rd ); 7,000 (27th )
March 7,500 (1st ) 8,000 (2st ); 10,000 (8th ); 11,000 (11th ); 12,000 - 17,500 (16th ); 16,000 (19th ); 20,000 (21st ); 24,000 (22nd ); 25,000 (27th ); 26,000 (29th ) Zimbabwean dollar becomes least valued currency unit around March 21; In March, the parallel rate becomes extremely erratic, with reported rates varying significantly.
April 250
(15,000 special rate)
30,000 (1st ); 15,000 (7th ); 20,000 (8th ); 25,000 (11th ); 35,000 (15th ) A "special rate" of 15,000 ZWD per USD was brought in on 26 April 2007. The improved exchange rate will be applied to miners, farmers, tour operators, non-governmental organizations, embassies, Zimbabweans living abroad that repatriate earnings, and others who generate foreign exchange. Exporters will be required to exchange money at the central bank to receive the better rate.
May 28,000 (10th ); 32,000 (18th ); 38,000 (20th ); 40,000 (22nd ); 45,000 (24rd ); 50,000 (29th )
June 55,000 (3nd ); 60,000 (12th ); 75-100,000 (13th ); 120,000 (16th ); 205,000 (20th ); 300,000 (22nd ); 400,000 (23rd )
July 270,000 (5th ); 300,000 (14th )
August 200,000 (21st )
September 30,000 250,000 (7th ); 280,000 (14th ); 340,000 (18th ); 500,000 (26th ); 600,000 (29th ) Official exchange rate was changed to 30,000 on September 7, 2007
October 750,000 (17th ); 1,000,000 (19th )
November 1,200,000 (1st ); 4,500,000 (14th ) (not confirmed); 1,400,000 (24th ); 1,500,000 (30th )
December 1,800,000 (1st ); 4,000,000 (3rd ) Due to the Dec 2007, banknote shortage, funds transferred via Electronic Funds Transfer Systems (EFTS) bore a premium rate of about $4 million, while the cash transaction rate varied around $2 million.
2008 January 1,900,000 (3rd ); 2,000,000 (4th ); 3,000,000 (8th ); 4,500,000 (19th ); 5,000,000 (21st ); 6,000,000 (24th ) The Old Mutual Implied Rate (OMIR) is calculated by dividing the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange price of the Old Mutual share by the London Stock Exchange Price for the same share. The answer is the Old Mutual Implied Rate for the Pound. Then a cross rate calculation is done for the USD rate.
6,240,837.51 (OMIR for 21st) 5,787,585.19 (OMIR for 25th)
February 7,500,000 (13th ); 8,500,000 (18th ); 16,000,000 and 20,000,000 for large amounts (21st )
March 24,000,000 (2nd ); 25,000,000 (5th ); 46,000,000 (10th ); 70,000,000 (19th ) 69,226,148.58 (OMIR for 17th)
April 80,000,000 (17th ); 85,000,000 (24th ); 100,000,000 (26th )
May 30,000 (to May 4);
168,815,333.33 (May 5); 187,073,022.88 (May 6); 190,429,449.18 (May 7); 204,565,727.39 (May 8); 210,389,632.00 (May 9); 216,528,794.21 (May 12); 224,832,332.83 (May 13); 236,706,849.48 (May 14); 246,433,371.43 (May 15); 255,771,415.67 (May 16); 275,335,294.12 (May 19); 303,753,731.48 (May 20); 337,341,911.76 (May 21); 369,632,426.29 (May 22); 405,870,411.18 (May 23); 434,449,294.12 (May 27); 486,485,294.12 (May 28); 529,336,764.71 (May 29); 580,678,132.35 (May 30)
190,000,000 (1st ); 200,000,000 (6th ); 250,000,000 (13th ); 315,000,000 (16th ); 498,000,000 (22nd); 494,000,000 (23rd); 580,000,000 (28th); 703,000,000 (29th); 777,500,000 (30th) The official exchange rate was allowed to float May 6
June 647,863,191.18 (2nd); 718,489,852.94 (3rd); 843,884,558.82 (4th); 969,647,058.82 (5th); 1,105,887,222.22 (6th); 1,365,130,333.33 (9th); 1,679,946,944.44 (10th); 2,150,078,888.89 (11th); 2,904,111,111.11 (12th); 3,524,549,987.29 (13th); 4,276,736,111.11 (16th); 4,952,500,000.00 (17th); 5,817,192,485.76 (18th); 6,718,055,555.56 (19th); 7,437,184,423.78 (20th); 8,260,031,632.83 (23rd); 9,005,149,886.88 (24th); 9,801,839,921.51 (25th); 10,594,701,303.45 (26th); 11,378,472,550.24 (30th) 971,500,000 (1st); 1,123,000,000 (3rd); 1,221,500,000 (4th); 1,964,500,000 (5th); 2,159,000,000 (6th); 2,691,588,425 (7th); 3,139,382,641 (9th); 4,605,736,200 (10th); 5,090,337,736 (11th); 5,137,128,498 (12th); 6,412,613,315 (13th); 7,512,863,828 (16th); 9,288,500,000 (17th); 13,999,000,000 (18th); 17,743,015,150 (19th); 20,269,600,000 (21st); 22,952,543,340 (23rd); 22,835,153,651 (24th); 32,603,770,511 (26th); 40,928,000,000 (30th) 967,480,942 (OMIR for 2nd); 1,746,899,809 (OMIR for 3rd); 3,047,030,834 (OMIR for 4th);

16,044,776,323 (OMIR for 19th); 17,039,490,724 (OMIR for 20th); 34,910,587,875 (OMIR for 23rd); 78,479,941,887 (OMIR for 24th); 62,024,868,786 (OMIR for 25th); 64,575,990,281 (OMIR for 26th); 164,312,344,622 (OMIR for 30th)

July 12,226,034,516.65 (1st);
13,350,764,705.88 (2nd);
14,345,060,331.82 (3rd);
15,183,703,996.98 (4th);
16,204,996,229.26 (7th);
17,066,529,677.98 (8th);
17,883,023,378.58 (9th);
18,681,527,512.36 (10th);
19,489,294,117.65 (11th);
20,170,317,159.13 (14th);
21,460,313,914.03 (15th);
23,356,231,572.65 (16th);
25,389,017,580.37 (17th);
27,164,677,690.87 (18th);
30,201,803,133.32 (21st);
34,749,797,812.59 (22nd);
39,129,724,504.88 (23rd);
43,319,583,395.92 (24th);
48,679,445,871.90 (25th);
54,036,639,077.74 (28th);
58,886,562,526.04 (29th);
63,761,761,010.94 (30th);
69,484,070,056.18 (31st);
(Source )
53,049,500,000 (1st);
65,797,000,000 (7th);
102,351,000,000 (8th);
145,624,500,000 (11th);
151,425,393,163 (11th);
193,014,500,000 (14th);
200,414,514,369 (14th);
274,200,889,709 (15th);
288,072,000,000 (16th);
325,110,110,211 (16th);
324,446,338,775 (17th);
360,000,000,000 (17th);
380,000,000,000 (18th);
430,000,000,000 (18th);
600,000,000,000 (21st); ,
650,000,000,000 (22nd)
750,000,000,000 (23rd);
555,000,000,000 (25th): 758,530,000,000 (30th); 510,000,000,000 (31st):
142,024,433,315 (OMIR for 1st);
129,140,850,245 (OMIR for 2nd);
109,689,985,935 (OMIR for 3rd);
113,028,111,843 (OMIR for 4th);
202,409,619,045 (OMIR for 7th);
173,176,356,278 (OMIR for 8th);
126,117,317,180 (OMIR for 9th);
139,534,966,792 (OMIR for 10th);
189,961,549,747 (OMIR for 11th);
194,840,848,150 (OMIR for 14th);
236,850,692,832 (OMIR for 15th);
241,421,049,361 (OMIR for 16th);
270,477,236,528 (OMIR for 17th);
404,332,849,598 (OMIR for 18th);
502,683,475,196 (OMIR for 21st);
687,860,375,011 (OMIR for 22nd);
495,932,559,520 (OMIR for 23rd);
488,452,876,313 (OMIR for 24th);
619,334,351,928 (OMIR for 25th);
525,086,664,547 (OMIR for 28th);
456,921,446,064 (OMIR for 30th);
669,809,343,407 (OMIR for 31st);
(Source )

Restoration of market data feeds

In the final months before Zimbabwe's central bank reforms of April 30, 2008, virtually all popular currency conversion resources relied upon the official rate of 30,000 ZWD to 1 USD for published figures, in spite of the vast differences between that and free market rates. By May 23, 2008, Bloomberg and Oanda began publishing floating rates based on Zimbabwe's formally regulated domestic bank market, while Yahoo Finance started using the updated official rate in July, albeit with a decimal point shift of 6 places. Those floating rates may still differ substantially from less regulated markets such as offshore markets or paper cash freely traded on the streets of Harare. The primary drivers of that distortion may be cash shortages or the various limits on state sanctioned forex transactions, which for private parties, must be handled via transfer instead of in cash for values beyond $150 USD.

Third dollar

On August 1, 2008, ten zeroes were removed from the currency, reducing 10 billion Zimbabwean dollars to one dollar. On October 3, 2008, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe suspended the Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system, halting electronic parallel market transfers .

Date Official Rate
(Source : )
Parallel Rate
(Sources: † /
)
Old Mutual Implied Rate
(OMIR Source: )
Notes
2008 August

7.58 (1st)
8.11 (4th)
8.94 (5th)
9.92 (6th)
10.93 (7th)
11.90 (8th)
13.19 (13th)
14.52 (14th)
15.80 (15th)
17.49 (18th)
18.84 (19th)
20.08 (20th)
21.55 (21st)
23.29 (22nd)
25.34 (25th)
27.66 (26th)
29.91 (27th)
32.05 (28th)
34.83 (29th)

40.53 †; 51 ‡ (1st);
61 ‡ (2nd)
40.96 †; 66 ‡ (5th)
74 ‡ (8th)
41.79 † (11th)
110 ‡ (13th)
190 ‡; 64.12 † (14th)
230 ‡ (15th)
223.51 †; 375 ‡ (18th)
420 ‡ (19th)
430 ‡ (21st)
460 †; 440 ‡ (26th)
650 ‡; 700 † (27th)
1,400 †; 1,700 ‡ (29th)

49.23 (1st)
38.35 (4th)
34.05 (5th)
39.41 (6th)
64.19 (7th)
48.13 (8th)
74.86 (13th)
138.46 (14th)
121.43 (15th)
168.84 (18th)
161.24 (19th)
185.33 (20th)
297.21 (21st)
393.30 (22nd)
992.02 (25th)
749.47 (26th)
868.71 (27th)
1,330.10 (28th)
1,780.04 (29th)

August 1: RBZ revalues the Zim dollar again.
10 billion Second Z$ become 1 third Z$ or
10 trillion First Z$ become 1 third Z$.
See also:
"Zimbabwe’s re-valued currency after
one month"

includes a daily list of the ZWD parallel
exchange rates in August 2008.
September 37.15 (1st)
39.59 (2nd)
42.72 (3rd)
45.53 (4th)
48.79 (5th)
52.71 (8th)
58.10 (9th)
62.47 (10th)
67.52 (11th)
71.40 (12th)
77.69 (15th)
83.57 (16th)
88.70 (17th)
92.97 (18th)
96.43 (19th)
101.57 (22nd)
105.43 (23rd)
109.48 (24th)
114.61 (25th)
118.76 (26th)
125.75 (29th)
132.25 (30th)
2,000 †; 2,498 ‡ (1st);
2,800 †; 3,650 ‡ (2nd)
4,300 † (3rd)
4,500 † (4th)
4,800 † 5,700 ‡; 7,500 (5th)
8,500 ‡ (8th)
14,000 † (9th)
20,000 †; 29,000 ‡ (11th)
30,000 (12th)
34,000 † (15th)
22,000 †; 34,000 ‡ (16th)
33,000 † (18th)
65,059 †; 59,652 ‡ (22nd)
80,754 ‡ (23rd)
140,251 †; 135,368 ‡ (24th)
271,915 ‡ (25th)
271,593 † (26th)
554,915 †; 360,707 ‡ (29th)
3,362.11 (1st)
3,948.99 (2nd)
4,310.79 (3rd)
5,085.06 (4th)
11,814.65 (5th)
13,583.11 (8th)
11,607.51 (9th)
14,936.19 (10th)
25,383.96 (11th)
19,787.90 (12th)
18,888.01 (15th)
11,633.14 (16th)
22,837.27 (17th)
34,605.60 (18th)
37,997.15 (19th)
79,816.45 (22nd)
131,237.14 (23rd)
270,794.07 (24th)
247,618.46 (25th)
266,074.77 (26th)
557,362.26 (29th)
592,415.96 (30th)

October 138.14 (1st)
145.62 (2nd)
153.10 (3rd)
160.46 (6th)
167.68 (7th)
176.33 (8th)
790,510 ‡; 1,000,000 (1st) 1,418,021.35 (1st)
841,881.06 (2nd)
660,731.97 (3rd)
1,715,117.70 (6th)
2,305,439.89 (7th)
2,045,021.39 (8th)
3,161,380.57 (9th)
4,183,564.08 (10th)
Electronic bank transfers (RTGS) have
been suspended by the Reserve Bank.
No funds can be transferred between
banks, effectively aborting the parallel rates.

See also

References

External links

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