Examples of various classes of small arms generally considered long arms include, but are not limited to:
The mass of a long gun is usually greater than that of a short gun, reducing recoil. The greater length also gives a greater moment of inertia for a given mass, resulting in greater stability in aiming.
The mass of a long gun is usually greater than that of a short gun, increasing weight and moment of inertia. Increased weight will make the long gun more expensive to transport, and more difficult and tiring to carry. The increased moment of inertia makes the long gun slower and more difficult to elevate and traverse, and it is thus slower and more difficult to adjust the aim. The greater amount of material in a long gun tends to make it more expensive to manufacture, other factors being equal. The greater size makes it more difficult to conceal, and more inconvenient to use in confined quarters, as well as requiring a larger storage space.
Shotguns are long guns that are designed to fire many small projectiles at once. This makes them very effective and easy to aim at close ranges, but with diminished usefulness at long range.
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