He establishes early on in the section The Problem of Socrates, that the value of life cannot be estimated and any judgment concerning it only reveals the person's life-denying or life-affirming tendencies. He tries to show how philosophers from Socrates onwards were "decadents," employing dialectics as a tool for self-preservation as the authority of tradition breaks down. In the chapter The Four Great Errors, he suggests that people, especially Christians, confuse the effect for the cause, and that they project their ego, their subjectivity to other things, thereby creating the illusionary concept of being, and therefore also of God. He critiques the concept of accountability and will and suggests everything is necessary in a unity that can be neither judged nor condemned.
In suggesting that the concept of "free will" is an illusion, Nietzsche concludes that what people typically deem "vice" is in fact merely "the inability not to react to a stimulus". In this light, the concept of morality becomes purely a means of control: "the doctrine of will has been invented essentially for the purpose of punishment, that is of finding guilty".
Men were thought of as free so that they could become guilty: consequently, every action had to be thought of as willed, the origin of every action as lying in the consciousness... ...Today, when we have started to move in the reverse direction, when we immoralists especially are trying with all our might to remove the concept of guilt and the concept of punishment from the world and to purge psychology, history, nature, the social institutions and sanctions of them, there is in our eyes no more radical opposition than that of the theologians, who continue to infect the innocence of becoming with 'punishment' and 'guilt' by means of the concept of the 'moral world-order'. Christianity is a hangman's metaphysics. The Four Great Errors
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