The 2 dialects are
There are two main differences between these two styles :
Many of these can occur as geminates : kk, gg, nng, nnj, hnn, mm, nn, cch, jj, tt, dd, tth, ddh, pp, bb, ll, hll, trr
There are also aspirated stop consonants : kh, gh, chh, jh, t'h, d'h, thh, dhh, ph, bh
The final -u in words is pronounced as an unrounded back vowel, something between i and u.
Nouns are followed by postpositions like kite 'near', le 'in' or kiizhe 'below'. There are also compound postpostions made up of a postposition plus noun plus postposition like k adi le 'below'. The verb iruku means 'is' or 'there is'.
Nouns are in an oblique form before a preposition. Most nouns have no special oblique form. Many have. Pusthahath is the oblique form of pusthaham. Sometimes between the oblique form and the postposition a dummy particle like u or n is placed. Chevar has an oblique form chevath. English words in English spelling are freely used in Braahmik.
The article 'a' or 'the' has to be understood from context.
Verbs are usually given in their imperative singular form in the dictionary. They form their three main tenses from three different bases. Often the bases are identical. But in most other cases they are different.
The verb iru 'to be' is in its imperative singular form. Its present tense base is 'iruk'. In all three tense forms, verbs have different endings for different persons in the singular and plural numbers.
The third person singular neuter form of iru is iruku
Pronouns and their oblique forms:
In the table below the personal pronouns and their oblique forms are given:
|naan (en, ena)||naan (en, ena)||I|
|nie (on, ona)||nie (on, ona)||you (sg)|
|nier (om, oma)||nier (om, oma)||you (sg, hon)|
|avan (avan)||avan (avan)||he|
|ava(hl) (avahl)||avahl (avahl)||she|
|avar (avar)||avar (avar)||he / (she) (hon)|
|adhu (adhu)||adhu (adhu)||it|
|naama, namma(hl) (nammahl)||nammahl (nammahl)||we (incl)|
|naanga(hl) (engalh)||naangahl (engahl)||we (excl)|
|nienga(hl) (ongahl)||niengahl (ongahl)||you (pl / sg(hon))|
|avaa(hl) (avaahl)||avaa(hl) (avaahl)||they (m / f pl, sg(hon))|
|adhuha(hl) (adhuhahl)||adhuhahl (adhuhahl)||they (n pl)|
The oblique forms given above are followed by postpositions. Pronouns have attributive forms that are placed before nouns as possessive adjectives. The table below gives the attributive forms of pronouns, that is the possessive adjectives.
|om||om||your (sg hon)|
|avar||avar||his (/ her) (hon)|
|adhu||adhu, adhu n||its|
|avaa||avaa||their (m / f)|
|adhuha||adhuha||their (n pl)|
The most important forms of verbs in Braahmik are : the imperative form, the infinitive form, the present tense base, the past tense base, the past participle form, the future tense base and the personal endings for the past /present and future tenses.
In the following tables, these forms are grouped as follows :
1) Imperative – Infinitive – Past Participle
2) (Personal Endings for:) Past / Present – (and) Future
3) Imperative – Present Base – Past Base – Future Base
|padi 'read, study'||padika||padichu|
|peeszu 'speak, talk;||peesza||peeszi|
|chaapdu, szaapdu 'eat, have food'||chaapda, szaapda||chaaptu, szaaptu|
|po, poo 'go'||pooha||pooy|
|nillu 'stand, stop'||nika||ninnu|
|edu 'take, remove'||eduka||eduthu|
|chiri, sziri 'laugh'||chirika, szirika||chirichu, szirichu|
|chollu, szollu 'say, tell'||cholla, szolla||cholli, szolli|
|keehlu 'ask, hear, listen'||keeka||keetu|
|vei 'put, keep'||veika||vechu|
|vei 'scold'||veia||vesszu (mainly Thanju)|
|kaahnu 'meet, be seen'||kaahna||kahndu|
Personal Endings of Past / Present and Future
|Pronoun||Past / Presnet||Future|
|nie||e, aay||e, aay|
|adhu||adhu / dhu*||um*|
|adhuha(hl)||adhu(hahl) / *dhu(hagl)||*um|
In the verbs in which the past tense base ends in -in, the 3 rd p. n. ending is -thu (as in oodithu 'it ran') in the past tense.
The forms poochu 'it went' and aachu 'it was over' are prominent exceptions..
Imperative – Present Base – Past Base – Future Base:
|Imperative||Present Base||Past Base||Future Base|
|chaapdu, szaapdu||chaapdar, szaapdar||chaaptu, szaaptu||chaapduv, szaapduv|
|po, poo||poohar, poor||poon||poov|
|chiri, sziri||chirikarm szirikar||chirichu, szirichu||chiripu, sziripu|
|chollum szollu||chollar, szollar||chonn, szonn||cholluv, szolluv|
|kaahnu||kaahnar||kanhd / kand||kaanhuv|
The verb forms uhlla, thangara and thaamasikara in the above Thanju and Paalu passages are present participial adjective forms.
The phrases containing these forms are equivalent to a relative clause in English:
Hotel le thaamasikara puhlleiahl means 'the boys. who stay in a hotel' or 'the boys staying in a hotel'.
In Braahmik there is no relative clause, threre are only participial adjectival phrases that precede the head noun.
Participial adjectives can be formed from the present and past tense bases by just adding the suffix -a. The future 3 rd p n form itself serves as the future adjectival participle, but that form is very rarely used in Braahmik.
A few verbs like iru 'to be', poo 'to go' or aa 'to be, become' have these forms formed irregularly. They are listed below :
Irukara, irundha, irukum, poora / poohara, poona, poohum and aara / aahara, aana, aahum
Poona varsham means 'last year, the year that went by'
Naan poona varsham Madras le irundha poodhu means 'when I was in Madras last year'
The participial adjectives are the same for all genders and numbers.
Padikara paian, padikara paszangahl, padikara pohnnu all mean 'student(s)'.
Padicha manushan, padicha pohnnu mean 'the educated man, the educated girl'
Nie padicha paadam 3 (muuhn) aavadhu, nie padika poora paadam 4 (naal) aavadhu means 'the lesson you studied is the 3 rd, the lesson you are going to study is the 4 th'.
Braahmik at one time had, like Tamil, separate auciliary verbs to give a reflexive, concessive or perfective sense to the main verb. Being a rapidly growing colloquial language, it contracted these auxiliary verbs into mere verbal suffixes to convert the main verb into a reflexive, concessive or perfective verb. The verbs are kohllu (reflexive / concessive) contracted to -ko and vidu (perfect tense auxiliary) contracted to -du.
In the following table, ordinary verbs and the corresponding reflexive / concessive and prefective verbs are given:
|Ordinary||Reflexive / concessive||Perfective|
|poo 'go'||pooyko 'you may go'||pooydu 'go away'|
|vaa 'come'||vandhuko / -ho 'you may come'||vandhudu 'come away'|
|edu 'take'||eduthuko 'you may take'||eduthudu 'ake it away'|
|okaaru 'sit down'||okaandhuko / -ho 'take your seat'||okandhudu '(just) sit down (and don't get up)'|
|vechuko 'keep it to yourself, you may keep it'||vechudu 'keep it down (and don't touch it)'|
|sziri /chiri 'Laugh'||sziri- / chirichuko 'snuke, laugh in your sleeves'||sziri- / chirithudu 'burst out laughing'|
The verb iru does work for both 'to be' and 'to have', The difference is brought out by syntax :
Avan oru kozhandhei 'he (is) a child'
Avan u ku oru kozhandhei iruku 'he has a child'
Naan pahna kaaran 'I am a rich man'
En kite pahnam iruku 'I have money'
King Midas u ku kazhudhei kaadhu 'King
Midas has ass's ears'.
Enga thaathaa ku romba vayas aachu 'My gandfather is very old'.
Kozhandhei ki pathu vayasu 'The child is 10 years old'.
En kite oru pusthaham iruku 'I have a book'.
Ena k oru thambi irukaan 'I have a younger brother'.
English verbs can be turned into a braahmik verb by placing the verb pahnnu after the English infinitive :
Arrange pahnnu 'to arrange'
The past participle of one or more verbs followed by another verb is a common construction, often translatable by a single word in English : Vaangi thaa 'buy (for me), buy and give'
Eduthu kondu vaa (eduthundu vaa), kondu vandhu thaa 'bring'
Kuutindu poo 'accompany, escort'
Arrange pahnni vei 'keep smth. arranged' (ordinary)
Arrange pahnni vech iru 'keep smth arranged. (perfective)
Corresponding to the English possessive adjectives (mu, your, his, her, our, etc.), there are possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, etc.)
In Braahmik too there are possessive pronouns corresponding to the possessive adjectives. Negative Forms of Verbs:
The negative form of the verb common to the simple past and present is obtained by placing the negative particle lei after the infinitive form of a verb. The verb maaten, maate, .... placed after the infinitive form, acts as the future negative:
Naan pooha lei 'I didn't go, I don't go, I am not going' Naan pooha maaten 'I will not go, I am not going
Participial nouns referring to the action indicated by the verb are formed by affixing -adhu to the present or past tense bases/ The future participial noun of the same kind is obtained by placing the participial nouns pooradhu or poonadhu after the infinitive of a verb:
Kalambra oodaradhu odambu ku nalladhu 'Running in the morning is good for the body'. Padichadhu manasu le nikahnum 'What was studied must be retained in the mind'.
The participial noun can also refer to the person or thing that performed the action. In this case the endings attached to the present and past bases are:
-an (m sg), -a(hl) (f sg), -ar (hon sg), -dhu (n sg), -vaa(hl) (pl) -adhu(ha(hl)):
Vandhavan, (-vahl, -dhu) yaaru ? 'Who is the one that came ?'
Vandhavaahl u k ellaam szaapadu pootaa 'They served lunch for all who came.
Exercise 6.1: Translate into English
1.Indha pakam poonadhu on thambi a ? 2.Naan innei ki Madraas u ku poo lei. 3.Nahlei ki pooha poore a ? 4.Vehli le poonavaahl ellaam aathu ku vandhutaahl a ?
Exercise 6.2: Translate into Braahmik:
1.Go home. . 2.I won't go to the office tomorrow.
3.If you come, I will also come.
4.Did you have school yesterday ?
The Imperative (2 nd p) Singular and Plural Forms of Verbs
|Infinitive||Imp Sinfular||Imp Plural|
|po, poo 'to go'||(nie) po, (nier) pom||(nienga(hl)) poongo(hl)|
|oodu 'to run'||(nie) oodu, (nier) oodum||(nienga(hl)) odungo(hl)|
|padi 'to read, study'||(nie) padi, (nier) padium||(nienga(hl)) padingo(hl)|
|nillu 'stand up, stop, wait'||(nie) nillu||(nier) nillum||(nienga(hl)) nillungo(hl)|
|porrapadu 'get ready, start'||(nie) porrapadu||(nier) porrapadum||(nienga(hl)) porrapadungo(hl)|
|vaa 'come'||(nie) vaa||(nier) vaarum (nienga(hl)) vaango(hl)|
|iru 'be, stay, wait'||(nie) iru||(nier) irum||(nienga(hl)) irungo(hl)|
|nada 'walk'||(nie) nada||(nier) nadaum||(nienga(hl)) nadango(hl)/nadaungo(hl)|
|eduthuko 'you may take'||(nie) eduthuko||(nier) duthukum||(nienga(hl)) eduthukongo(hl) eduthukungo(hl)|
The negative imperative forms are obtained from the infinitive form by removing the final -a and attaching -aadhe, aadheum, aadhengo / aadheungo / aadhungo:
Indha edam szuddham aa illei. Nier inge varaadheum, ange e irum ' This place is not clean. (Please) don't come here, (sir), Please stay there itself'.
Braahmik has a number of imprsoanal verbs that have only the 3 rd person neuter singular form.
It has usually a passive sense. The main recipient or subject of the action is a noun or pronoun with the postposition ku.
A few such verbs are given in the following table:
|their (theriaradhu, therinjudhu, therium||to be known.|
|veendi iru (iruku, irundhudhu, irukum)||to be needed|
|kaanhu (kaahnaradhu, kandudhu, kaahnum)||to be seen|
|pidi (pidikaradhu, pidichudhu, pidikum)||to be liked|
There is also a defective impersonal verbal particle that has only one form:
En kite pathu padhin anju ruubaay iruku, 'I have 10 or 15 rupees with me'.
Dr. P. C. Ganeshsundaram (Sydney)
Rudin (Leningrad / Petrograd)