Definitions

field event

Long jump

The long jump is an athletics (track and field) event in which athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in an attempt to leap as far from the take-off point as possible.

Competitors sprint down a runway (usually coated with the same rubberized surface as running tracks, crumb rubber or vulcanized rubber) and jump as far as they can from behind a foul line (commonly referred to as the "board", and usually defined by the trailing edge of a takeoff board embedded flush with the runway surface, or a painted mark on the runway) into a pit filled with finely ground gravel or sand. The distance traveled by a jumper is often referred to as the “mark” because it is the distance to the nearest mark made in the sand from the foul line. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, the jump is declared illegal and no distance is recorded. At the elite level, a layer of plasticine is placed immediately after the board to detect this occurrence. Otherwise, an official (similar to a referee) will observe the jump and make the determination. The competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line; however, the distance measured will always be from the foul line. Therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible.

Usually, each competitor has a set number of attempts to make his or her longest jump, and only the longest legal jump counts towards the results. Typically, competitors have three trial jumps with which to make their best effort. Higher level competitions are split into two rounds: trials and finals. In competitions containing a final round, only a select number of competitors are invited to return for further competition. The number of competitors chosen to return to the final round is determined before the start of the meet by a committee composed of coaches and officials. It is standard practice to allow one more competitor than the number of scoring positions to return to the final round. For example, if a given meet allows the top eight competitors to score points, then the top nine competitors will be selected to compete in the final round. Taking an extra competitor to the final round helps to allow that athlete to move into a scoring position if the competitor can improve on his or her best mark of the competition. Final rounds are viewed as an additional three jumps, as they do not have any priority to those scored in the trial round. The competitor with the longest legal jump (from either the trial or final rounds) at the end of competition is declared the winner. (For specific rules and regulations in U.S. Track & Field see Rule 185).

There are four main components of the long jump: the approach run, the last two strides, takeoff and action in the air, and landing. Speed in the run-up, or approach, and a high leap off the board are the fundamentals of success. Because speed is such an important factor of the approach, it is not surprising that many long jumpers also compete successfully in sprints. A classic example of this long jump / sprint doubling is performances by Carl Lewis.

The long jump is notable for two of the longest-standing world records in any track and field event. In 1935, Jesse Owens set a long jump world record that was not broken until 1960 by Ralph Boston. Later, Bob Beamon jumped 8.90 meters (29 feet, 2-1/2 inches) at the 1968 Summer Olympics at an altitude of 7,349 feet, a jump not exceeded until 1991. On August 30 of that year, Mike Powell of the USA, in a well-known show down against Carl Lewis, leapt 8.95 meters at the World Championships in Tokyo, setting the current men's world record. Some jumps over 8.95 meters have been officially recorded (8.99 meters by Mike Powell himself, 8.96 meters by Ivan Pedroso), but were not validated since there was either no reliable wind speed measurement available, or because wind speed exceeded 2.0 m/s. The current world record for women is held by Galina Chistyakova of the former Soviet Union who leapt 7.52 meters in Leningrad in 1988.

History

The long jump was one of the events of the original Olympics in Ancient Greece. The athletes carried a weight in each hand, which were called halteres. These weights were swung forward as the athlete jumped in order to increase momentum. It is commonly believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in mid-air to increase his forward momentum; however, halteres were held throughout the duration of the jump. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the athlete's center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward, increasing his distance. Most notable in the ancient sport was a man called Chionis, who in the 656BC Olympics staged a jump of 7 meters and 5 centimeters (23 feet and 1.5 inches).

The long jump has been part of modern Olympic competition since the inception of the Games in 1896. In 1914, Dr. Harry Eaton Stewart recommended the “running broad jump” as a standardized track and field event for women. However, it was not until 1928 that women were allowed to compete in the event at the Olympic level (See Athletics - track and field).

The approach

The objective of the approach is to gradually accelerate to a maximum controlled speed at takeoff. The most important factor for the distance traveled by an object is its velocity at takeoff - both the speed and angle. Elite jumpers usually leave the ground at an angle of twenty degrees or less; therefore, it is more beneficial for a jumper to focus on the speed component of the jump. The greater the speed at takeoff, the longer the trajectory of the center of mass will be. The importance of a takeoff speed is a factor in the success of sprinters in this event.

The length of the approach is usually consistent distance for an athlete. Approaches can vary between 12 and 19 strides on the novice and intermediate levels, while at the elite level they are closer to between 20 and 22 strides. The exact distance and number of strides in an approach depends on the jumper’s experience, sprinting technique, and conditioning level. Consistency in the approach is important as it is the competitor’s objective to get as close to the front of the takeoff board as possible without crossing the line with any part of the foot.

Inconsistent approaches are a common problem in the event. As a result the approach is usually practiced by athletes about 6-8 times per jumping session (see Training below).

The last two strides

The objective of the last two strides is to prepare the body for takeoff while conserving as much speed as possible.

The penultimate (second to last)stride is longer than the last stride. The competitor begins to lower his or her center of gravity to prepare the body for the vertical impulse. The final stride is shorter because the body is beginning to raise the center of gravity in preparation for takeoff.

The last two strides are extremely important because they determine the velocity with which the competitor will enter the jump.

Takeoff

The objective of the takeoff is to create a vertical impulse through the athlete’s center of gravity while maintaining balance and control.

This phase is one of the most technical parts of the long jump. Jumpers must be conscious to place the foot flat on the ground, because jumping off either the heels or the toes negatively affects the jump. Taking off from the board heel-first has a braking effect, which decreases velocity and strains the joints. Jumping off the toes decreases stability, putting the leg at risk of buckling or collapsing from underneath the jumper. While concentrating on foot placement, the athlete must also work to maintain proper body position, keeping the torso upright and moving the hips forward and up to achieve the maximum distance from board contact to foot release.

There are four main styles of takeoff: the kick style, double-arm style, sprint takeoff, and the power sprint or bounding takeoff.

Kick

The kick style takeoff is a style of takeoff where the athlete actively cycles the leg before a full impulse has been directed into the board then landing into the pit.

Double-arm

The double-arm style of takeoff works by moving both arms in a vertical direction as the competitor takes off. This produces a high hip height and a large vertical impulse.

Sprint

The sprint takeoff is the style most widely instructed by coaching staff. This is a classic single-arm action that resembles a jumper in full stride. It is an efficient takeoff style for maintaining velocity through takeoff.

Power sprint or bounding

The power sprint takeoff, or bounding takeoff, is arguably one of the most effective styles. Very similar to the sprint style, the body resembles a sprinter in full stride. However, there is one major difference. The arm that pushes back on takeoff (the arm on the side of the takeoff leg) fully extends backward, rather than remaining at a bent position. This additional extension increases the impulse at takeoff.

The “correct” style of takeoff will vary from athlete to athlete.

Action in the air and landing

There are three major flight techniques for the long jump: the hang, the sail and the hitch-kick. Each technique is to combat the forward rotation experienced from take-off but is basically down to preference from the athlete. It is important to note that once the body is airborne, there is nothing that the athlete can do to change the direction they are travelling and consequently where they are going to land in the pit. However, it can be argued that certain techniques influence an athlete’s landing, which can have an impact on distance measured. For example, if an athlete lands feet first but falls back because they are not correctly balanced, a lower distance will be measured.

Sail

The sail technique is one of the most basic long jump techniques practiced by competitors. After the takeoff phase is complete, the jumper immediately lifts the legs into a toe-touching position. This is useful, as it allows the competitor to move into the landing position early.

Hang

The hang technique works by lengthening the body to make it as efficiently long as possible. Here both the arms and legs are extended to reach a maximum distance from the hips to increase distance. This position is held until after the jumper reaches the apex of the jump, at which point the athlete will snap the legs forward into a landing position.

Hitch-kick

The hitch-kick is also known as “climbing” or “running in the air”. This technique counteracts the athletes rotational velocity by cycling the arms and legs during the flight, and is also the most complex technique.

In-the-air techniques are generally selected by the athlete and coach during training based on an individual athlete’s skills and experience.

When landing, it is the primary objective of the competitor not to fall back in the landing pit. The jump is measured from the location in which the body contacts the sand closest to the takeoff point. For this reason many jumpers will work on keeping their feet in front of the body at a maximum distance from the hips. Upon landing, competitors will often use their arms in a sweeping motion to help keep the legs up and the body forward. upon contacting the ground, the athlete will push their legs hard into the sand and rotate the body sideways, this slows the vertical (downward) momentum of the bottom and also rotates it to the side of the athlete trying to ensure that the heels are the furthest back body part.

Training

The long jump generally requires training in a variety of areas. These areas include, but are not limited to, those listed below.

Jumping

Long Jumpers tend to practice jumping 1-2 times a week. Approaches, or run-throughs, are repeated sometimes up to 6-8 times per session.

Over-distance running

Over-distance running workouts helps the athlete jump a further distance than their set goal. For example, having a 100m runner practice by running 200m repeats on a track. This is specifically concentrated in the season when athletes are working on building endurance. Specific over-distance running workouts are performed 1-2 times a week. This is great for building sprint endurance, which is required in competitions where the athlete is sprinting down the runway 3-6 times.

Weight training

During pre-season training and early in the competition season weight training tends to play a major role. It is customary for a long jumper to weight train up to 4 times a week, focusing mainly on quick movements involving the legs and trunk. Some athletes perform olympic lifts in training. Athletes use low repetition and emphasize speed to maximize the strength increase while minimizing adding additional weight to their frame.

Plyometrics

Plyometrics, including running up and down stairs and hurdle bounding, can be incorporated into workouts, generally twice a week. This allows an athlete to work on agility and explosiveness.

Bounding

Bounding is any sort of continuous jumping or leaping. Bounding drills usually require single leg bounding, double-leg bounding, or some variation of the two. The focus of bounding drills is usually to spend less time on the ground as possible and working on technical accuracy, fluidity, and jumping endurance and strength. Technically, bounding is part of plyometrics, as a form of a running exercise such as high knees and butt kicks.

Flexibility

Flexibility is an always forgotten tool for long jumpers. Effective flexibility prevent injury, which can be important for high impact events such as the long jump. It also helps the athlete sprint down the runway.

A common tool in many long jump workouts is the use of video taping. This lets the athlete to go back and watch their own progress as well as letting the athlete compare their own footages to some of the world class jumpers.

Training style, duration, and intensity vary immensely from athlete to athlete based on the experience and strength of the athlete as well as on their coaching style.

World Record Progression

Men

MARK ATHLETE VENUE DATE
7.61

* Dublin 1901-08-05
7.69 Cambridge 1923-07-23
7.76 Paris 1924-07-07
7.89 Chicago 1925-06-13
7.90 Cambridge 1928-07-07
7.93 Paris 1928-09-09
7.98 Tokyo 1931-10-27
8.13 Ann Arbor 1935-05-25
8.21 Walnut 1960-08-12
8.24 Modesto 1961-05-27
8.28 Moscow 1961-07-16
8.31 Yerevan 1962-06-10
8.31 Kingston 1964-08-15
8.34 Los Angeles 1964-09-12
8.35 Modesto 1965-05-29
8.35 USA 1967-10-19
8.90 Mexico City 1968-10-18
8.95 Tokyo 1991-08-30
Source:

*Ireland in 1901 was still part of the United Kingdom; however O'Connor considered himself Irish and was competing on this occasion as a member of the Irish Amateur Athletic Association. In the source above he is listed as "GBI/IRL".

Women

MARK ATHLETE VENUE DATE
5.98 Osaka 1928-05-20
6.12 Berlin 1939-07-30
6.25 Leiden 1943-09-19
6.28 Gisborne 1954-02-20
6.28 Moscow 1955-09-11
6.31 Tbilisi 1955-11-18
6.35 Budapest 1956-08-20
6.35 Melbourne 1956-11-27
6.40 Erfurt 1960-08-07
6.42 Berlin 1961-06-23
6.48 Moscow 1961-07-16
6.53 Leipzig 1962-06-10
6.70 Moscow 1964-07-04
6.76 Tokyo 1964-10-14
6.82 Mexico City 1968-10-14
6.84 Torino 1970-09-03
6.92 Dresden 1976-05-09
6.99 Dresden 1976-07-26
7.07 Kishinyov 1978-08-18
7.09 Prague 1978-08-29
7.20 Bucharest 1982-08-01
7.21 Bucharest 1983-05-15
7.43 Bucharest 1983-06-04
7.44 Berlin 1985-09-22
7.45 Tallinn 1986-06-21
7.45 Dresden 1986-07-03
7.45 Dresden 1987-08-13
7.52 Leningrad 1988-06-11

Source:

Top Ten Performers

Accurate as of October 4, 2008.

Men

Mark* Wind** Athlete Nationality Venue Date
8.95 0.3 Mike Powell Tokyo August 30, 1991
8.90A 2.0 Bob Beamon Mexico City October 18, 1968
8.87 -0.2 Carl Lewis Tokyo August 30, 1991
8.86A 1.9 Robert Emmiyan Tsakhkadzor May 22, 1987
8.74 1.4 Larry Myricks Indianapolis July 18, 1988
8.74A 2.0 Erick Walder El Paso April 2, 1994
8.73 1.2 Irving Saladino Hengelo May 24, 2008
8.71 1.9 Iván Pedroso Salamanca July 18, 1995
8.66 0.2 Louis Tsatoumas Kalamata June 2, 2007
8.63 0.5 Kareem Streete-Thompson Linz July 4, 1994

*(meters), **(metres/second) A = Altitude (above 1000 metres)

Women

Mark* Wind** Athlete Nationality Venue Date
7.52 1.4 Galina Chistyakova Leningrad June 11, 1988
7.49 1.3 Jackie Joyner-Kersee New York May 22, 1994
7.48 1.2 Heike Drechsler Neubrandenburg July 9, 1988
7.43 1.4 Anişoara Cuşmir Bucharest June 4, 1983
7.42 2.0 Tatyana Kotova Annecy June 23, 2002
7.39 0.5 Yelena Belevskaya Bryansk July 18, 1987
7.37 N/A Inessa Kravets Kiev June 13, 1992
7.33 0.4 Tatyana Lebedeva Tula July 31, 2004
7.31 1.5 Yelena Khlopotnova Alma Ata September 12, 1985
7.31 -0.1 Marion Jones Zürich August 12, 1998
*(meters), **(meters/second)

Best Year Performance

Men's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

YEAR DISTANCE ATHLETE PLACE
1960 8.21 Walnut
1961 8.28 Moscow
1962 8.31 Yerevan
1963 8.20 Modesto
1964 8.34 Los Angeles
1969 8.35 Modesto
1966 8.23 Leselidze
1967 8.35 Mexico City
1968 8.90 Mexico City
1969 8.21
Odessa
Chorzów
1970 8.35 Stuttgart
1971 8.23 El Paso
1972 8.34 Munich
1973 8.24 Westwood
1974 8.30 Modesto
1975 8.45 Montreal
1976 8.35 Montreal
1977 8.27 Nova Gorica
1978 8.32 Rovereto
1979 8.52 Montreal
1980 8.54 Moscow
1981 8.62 Sacramento
1982 8.76 Indianapolis
1983 8.79 Indianapolis
1984 8.71 Westwood
1985 8.62 Brussels
1986 8.61 Moscow
1987 8.86 Tsakhkadzor
1988 8.76 Indianapolis
1989 8.70 Houston
1990 8.66 Villeneuve d'Ascq
1991 8.95 Tokyo
1992 8.68 Barcelona
1993 8.70 Salamanca
1994 8.74 El Paso
1995 8.71 Salamanca
1996 8.58 Springfield
1997 8.63 Padua
1998 8.60 Bad Langensalza
1999 8.60 Padua
2000 8.65 Jena
2001 8.41 Turin
2002 8.52 Palo Alto
2003 8.53 Castellón de la Plana
2004 8.60 Linz
2005 8.60 Helsinki
2006 8.56 Rio de Janeiro
2007 8.66 Kalamáta
2008* 8.73 Hengelo

  • *ongoing season

Women's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

YEAR DISTANCE ATHLETE PLACE
1976 6.99 Dresden
1978 7.09 Prague
1979 6.90 Potsdam
1980 7.06 Moscow
1981 6.96 Colorado Springs
1982 7.20 Bucharest
1983 7.43 Bucharest
1984 7.40 Dresden
1985 7.44 Berlin
1986 7.45 Tallinn
1987 7.45 Indianapolis
1988 7.52 Leningrad
1989 7.24 Volgograd
1990 7.35 Bratislava
1991 7.37 Sestriere
1992 7.48 Lausanne
1993 7.21 Zürich
1994 7.49 New York City
1995 7.07 Linz
1996 7.20 Atlanta
1997 7.05 Athens
1998 7.31 Eugene
1999 7.26 Bogotá
2000 7.09 Rio de Janeiro
2001 7.12 Turin
2002 7.42 Annecy
2003 7.06 Milan
2004 7.33 Tula
2005 7.04 Sochi
2006 7.12 Novosibirsk
2007 7.21 Sochi
2008* 7.12 Monaco

  • *ongoing season

National records

Men

NATION DISTANCE ATHLETE VENUE DATE
8.95 m Mike Powell Tokyo 1991-08-30
8.86 m Robert Emmiyan Tsakhkadzor 1987-05-22
8.73 m Irving Saladino Hengelo 2008-05-24
8.71 m Iván Pedroso Salamanca 1995-07-18
8.66 m Louis Tsatoumas Kalamata 2007-06-02
8.62 m James Beckford Orlando 1997-04-05
8.56 m Yago Lamela Turin 1999-06-24
8.54 m Lutz Dombrowski Moscow 1980-07-28
8.49 m Jai Taurima Sydney 2000-09-28
8.48 m Mohamed Salman Al-Khuwalidi Sotteville 2006-07-02
8.47 m Andrew Howe Osaka 2007-08-30
8.46 m Leonid Voloshin Tallinn 1988-07-05
8.46 m Cheikh Tidiane Touré Bad Langensalza 1997-06-15
8.45 m Nenad Stekić Montreal 1975-07-25
8.43 m Ignisious Gaisah Rome 2006-07-14
8.41 m Craig Hepburn Nassau 1993-06-17
8.40 m Lao Jianfeng Zhaoqing 1997-05-28
8.40 m Gregor Cankar Celje 1997-05-18
8.40 m Douglas de Souza Sao Paulo 1995-02-15
8.39 m Godfrey Mokoena Lapinlahti 2006-07-16
8.37 m Bogdan Tudor Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1995-07-09
8.36 m Carlos Calado Lisboa 1997-06-20
8.35 m Sergey Layevskiy
Roman Shchurenko
Dnepropetrovsk
Kiev
1988-07-16
2000-07-25
8.34 m Nai Huei-Fang Shanghai 1993-05-14
8.34 m Younes Moudrik Algiers 2000-07-13
8.34 m Victor Castillo Cochabamba 2004-05-30
8.33 m Ivaylo Mladenov Seville 1995-06-03
8.33 m Aleksandr Glovatskiy Sestriere 1996-08-07
8.31 m Hassine Hatem Moursal Oslo 1999-06-30
8.30 m Kader Klouchi Dijon 1998-07-05
8.30 m Andreas Steiner Innsbruck 1988-06-04
8.30 m László Szalma Budapest 1985-07-07
8.30 m Ngonidzashe Makusha Des Moines 2008-06-12
8.29 m Chris Tomlinson Bad Langensalza 2007-07-07
8.25 m Milan Mikuláš Prague 1988-07-16
8.23 m Siniša Ergotić Zagreb 2002-06-05
8.21 m Mattias Sunneborn Malmö 1996-06-27
8.10 m Erki Nool Götzis 1995-05-27
8.08 m Mesut Yavaş İstanbul 2000-06-24
7.96 m Rogel Nachum Budapest 1990-06-18

References

External links

See also

* *

Search another word or see field eventon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature