A festival is an event, usually and ordinarily staged by a local community, which centers on some unique aspect of that community.
Among many religions, a feast or festival is a set of celebrations in honour of God or gods. A feast and a festival are historically interchangeable. However, the term "feast" has also entered common secular parlance as a synonym for any large or elaborate meal. When used as in the meaning of a festival, most often refers to a religious festival rather than a film or art festival.
In the Christian liturgical calendar there are two principal feasts, properly known as the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord (Christmas) and the Feast of the Resurrection, (Easter). In the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican liturgical calendars there are a great number of lesser feasts throughout the year commemorating saints, sacred events, doctrines, etc.
For a list of festivals in the USA, please see List of festivals in the United States.
The word fest
derives from the Middle English
, from Middle French
word festivus, from the Latin word festivus. Festival was first recorded as a noun in 1589. Before it had been used as an adjective from the fourteenth century, meaning to celebrate a church holiday. The etymology of feast is very similar to that of festival. The word "feste" (one letter different from "fest") comes from Middle English, from Middle French, from the Latin word festa. Feast first came into usage as a noun circa 1200, and feast was used as a verb circa 1300.A festival is a special occasion of feasting or celebration, that is usually religious. ''There can be many different types of festival, like Halloween and Christmas.
Festivals, of many types, serve to meet specific needs, as well as to provide entertainment. These times of celebration
offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups. Modern festivals that focus on cultural or ethnic topics seek to inform members of their traditions. In past times, festivals were times when the elderly
shared stories and transferred certain knowledge
to the next generation. Historic feasts often provided a means for unity among families
and for people to find mates
. Select anniversaries
have annual festivals to commemorate previous significant occurrences.
Types of festivals
There are numerous types of festivals in the world. Though many have religious origins, others involve seasonal change or have some cultural significance. Also certain institutions celebrate their own festival (often called "fests") to mark some significant occasions in their history. These occasions could be the day these institutions were founded or any other event which they decide to commemorate periodically, usually annually.
Seasonal festivals are determined by the solar
and the lunar calendars
and by the cycle of the seasons
. The changing of the season was celebrated because of its effect on food supply. Ancient Egyptians would celebrate the seasonal inundation
caused by the Nile River
, a form of irrigation
, which provided fertile land for crops. In the Alps
, in autumn the return of the cattle from the mountain pastures
to the stables in the valley is celebrated as Almabtrieb
. A recognized winter festival, the Chinese New Year
, is set by the lunar calendar, and celebrated from the day of the second new moon after the winter solstice
Certain institutions decide to annually commemorate certain special events significant to their history. These institutions are usually educational institutes such as colleges
and senior secondary, secondary, or high schools. Such festivals are usually called "fests". Examples of such a fest is Saarang
at IIT Madras
.,"Engineer" at NIT,Surathkal,MoodIndigo at IIT Bombay
Ancient Egyptian festivals
Most Ancient Egyptian
festivals were religious, but others were not such as one festival established by Ramesses III
to celebrate his victory over the Libyans
. When feasts occurred, they were either determined by lunar cycles or the Egyptian calendar. Festivals were large celebrations with plenty of food available. In one festival in the 12th century BC, 11,341 loaves of bread and 385 jars of beer were given to the public. The Sed festival
celebrated the thirtieth year of a pharaohs
rule and then every three (or four in one case) years after that.
Iranian traditional festivals:
Mehregan festival, Norooz or nuroz festival, qadir festival, Chahar shanbehesori festival .
Islamic festivals :
Hajj festival (biggest Islamic festival), Ide fiter festival is another Islamic festival, Ide qadir festival is also an Irano-Islamic festival .
Chinese traditional festivals
- Spring Festival (Chinese New Year, Agriculture Calendar January 1st)
- Bhutan Festival (Unique Festival )
- Lantern Festival (Community Day, Agriculture Calendar January 15th)
- Wild Festival (Agriculture Calendar March 3rd)
- Cold Food Festival (Agriculture Calendar one day before Solar term Qingming)
- Mourning Festival (Ancestor Worship, Agriculture Calendar Solar term Qingming around Apr.5)
- Dragon-boat Festival (Rice-Wrap Day, Agriculture Calendar May 5th)
- Magpie Festival (Chinese Valentine, Agriculture Calendar July 7th)
- Mid-Year Festival (Chinese Halloween, Agriculture Calendar July 15th)
- Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon-Cake Day, Agriculture Calendar August 15th)
- Dual-Yang Festival (Healthy long life Day and Hill-Climbing Day, Agriculture Calendar September 9th)
- Mid-Winter Festival (Solar term Mid-Winter, around December 23rd)
- Soup Festival (Buddhist Festival, Agriculture Calendar December 8th)
- Kitchen Festival (Chinese Thanksgiving, Agriculture Calendar December 23rd)
- New Year's Eve (the last day of the Agriculture Calendar)
- Mothers Day Festival 2008 (May 11, from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. South Park Recreation Center, 51th. St. & San Pedro St., South Central Los Angeles, 90011)