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Names of God in the Qur'an

The 99 Names of Allah, also known as The 99 Most Beautiful Names of God (), are the names of God (specifically, attributes) by which Muslims regard God and which are traditionally maintained as described in the Qur'an, and Sunnah, amongst other places. There is, according to hadith, a special group of 99 names but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed 99 in the Qur'an and Sunnah.

Origin

In one Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to call God by all His Names: Muhammad is also reported to have said in a famous hadith: Of note is that this hadith does not say that there are only 99 names, but 99 names that are better than the others. This caused people to search them out in the Qur'an and Sunnah, and a list was compiled. Over time it became custom to recite the list in its entirety. While some Muslims believe that this list is mentioned by Muhammad himself, the specialist Muslim scholars argue strongly that the list was just compiled by a Muslim scholar as an addendum to the actual hadith (al-Waleed ibn Muslim). If it was only an attempt of a scholar, they are not necessarily the names proper, and other attempts may still be made. A recent scholar, Dr. Mahmoud Abdel-Razek, made an attempt of this kind and explained in detail why he differs in opinion with al-Waleed about enlisting some of the names.

However, reciting the traditional names has developed into a ritual by some Muslims (a bit like a Catholic litany of Saints) as an attempt to enumerate them, while most other Muslims believe that the "enumeration" is not just the act of recitation, but applying the attributes that the names suggest.

List of Names

The Qur'an refers to the attributes of God as God's “most beautiful names” (Arabic: al-asmāʾ al-ḥusnā) (see , , , )). According to Gerhard Böwering,Islamic theology makes a distinction between the attributes of God and the divine essence.

Below is a list of the 99 Names of God according to the tradition of Islam.

#
Arabic
Transliteration
Translation (can vary based on context)
Qur'anic Usage
1 الرحمن Ar-Rahman The All Beneficent, The Most Merciful in Essence, The Compassionate, The Most Gracious Beginning of every chapter except one, and in numerous other places
2 الرحيم Ar-Rahim The Most Merciful, The Most Merciful in Actions Beginning of every chapter except one, and in numerous other places
3 الملك Al-Malik The King, The Sovereign, The True and Ultimate King 59:23, 20:114
4 القدوس Al-Quddus The Most Holy, The Most Pure, The Most Perfect 59:23, 62:1
5 السلام As-Salaam The Peace and Blessing, The Source of Peace and Safety, The Most Perfect 59:23
6 المؤمن Al-Mu'min The Guarantor, The Self Affirming, The Granter of Security, The Affirmer of Truth 59:23
7 المهيمن Al-Muhaymin The Guardian, The Preserver, The Overseeing Protector 59:23
8 العزيز Al-Aziz The Almighty, The Self Sufficient, The Most Honorable 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23
9 الجبار Al-Jabbar The Powerful, The Irresistible, The Compeller, The Most Lofty, The Restorer/Improver of Affairs 59:23
10 المتكبر Al-Mutakabbir The Tremendous 59:23
11 الخالق Al-Khaliq The Creator 6:102, 13:16, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24
12 البارئ Al-Bari' The Rightful 59:24
13 المصور Al-Musawwir The Fashioner of Forms 59:24
14 الغفار Al-Ghaffar The Ever Forgiving 20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10
15 القهار Al-Qahhar The All Compelling Subduer 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16
16 الوهاب Al-Wahhab The Bestower 3:8, 38:9, 38:35
17 الرزاق Ar-Razzaq The Ever Providing 51:58
18 الفتاح Al-Fattah The Opener, The Victory Giver 34:26
19 العليم Al-Alim The All Knowing, The Omniscient 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40
20 القابض Al-Qabid The Restrainer, The Straightener 2:245
21 الباسط Al-Basit The Expander, The Munificent 2:245
22 الخافض Al-Khafid The Abaser 95:5
23 الرافع Ar-Rafi‘e The Exalter 58:11, 6:83
24 المعز Al-Mu‘ezz The Giver of Honour 3:26
25 المذل Al-Mudhell The Giver of Dishonour 3:26
26 السميع As-Sami‘e The All Hearing 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1
27 البصير Al-Basir The All Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27
28 الحكم Al-Hakam The Judge, The Arbitrator 22:69
29 العدل Al-`Adl The Utterly Just 6:115
30 اللطيف Al-Lateef The Subtly Kind 6:103, 22:63, 31:16, 33:34
31 الخبير Al-Khabeer The All Aware 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18
32 الحليم Al-Haleem The Forbearing, The Indulgent 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41
33 العظيم Al-Azeem The Magnificent, The Infinite 2:255, 42:4, 56:96
34 الغفور Al-Ghafoor The All Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32
35 الشكور Ash-Shakoor The Grateful 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17
36 العلي Al-Aliyy The Sublimely Exalted 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51
37 الكبير Al-Kabeer The Great 13:9, 22:62, 31:30
38 الحفيظ Al-Hafeez The Preserver 11:57, 34:21, 42:6
39 المقيت Al-Muqeet The Nourisher 4:85
40 الحسيب Al-Hasib The Reckoner 4:6, 4:86, 33:39
41 الجليل Al-Jaleel The Majestic 55:27, 39:14, 7:143
42 الكريم Al-Karim The Bountiful, The Generous 27:40, 82:6
43 الرقيب Ar-Raqib The Watchful 4:1, 5:117
44 المجيب Al-Mujib The Responsive, The Answerer 11:61
45 الواسع Al-Wasse‘e The Vast, The All Encompassing 2:268, 3:73, 5:54
46 الحكيم Al-Hakeem The Wise 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2
47 الودود Al-Wadud The Loving, The Kind One 11:90, 85:14
48 المجيد Al-Majeed The All Glorious 11:73
49 الباعث Al-Ba'ith The Raiser of The Dead 22:7
50 الشهيد Ash-Shaheed The Witness 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28
51 الحق Al-Haqq The Truth, The Real 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25
52 الوكيل Al-Wakeel The Trustee, The Dependable 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9
53 القوى Al-Qawee The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25
54 المتين Al-Mateen The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58
55 الولى Al-Walee The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19
56 الحميد Al-Hamid The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42
57 المحصى Al-Muhsi The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29, 82:10-12
58 المبدئ Al-Mubdi' The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
59 المعيد Al-Mu‘id The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
60 المحيى Al-Muhyi The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2
61 المميت Al-Mumit The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2
62 الحي Al-Hayy The Ever Living 2:255, 3:2, 25:58, 40:65
63 القيوم Al-Qayyum The Self Subsisting Sustainer of All 2:255, 3:2, 20:111
64 الواجد Al-Wajid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44
65 الماجد Al-Majid The Illustrious, The Magnificent 85:15, 11:73,
66 الواحد Al-Wahid The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity 2:163, 5:73, 9:31, 18:110
67 الاحد Al-Ahad The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible 112:1
68 الصمد As-Samad The Self Sufficient, The Impregnable,
The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting
112:2
69 القادر Al-Qadir The All Able 6:65, 36:81, 46:33, 75:40
70 المقتدر Al-Muqtadir The All Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 54:55
71 المقدم Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61, 17:34,
72 المؤخر Al-Mu'akhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4
73 الأول Al-Awwal The First 57:3
74 الأخر Al-Akhir The Last 57:3
75 الظاهر Az-Zahir The Manifest, The All Victorious 57:3
76 الباطن Al-Batin The Hidden, The All Encompassing 57:3
77 الوالي Al-Waali The Patron 13:11, 22:7
78 المتعالي Al-Muta'ali The Self Exalted 13:9
79 البر Al-Barr The Most Kind and Righteous 52:28
80 التواب At-Tawwab The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3
81 المنتقم Al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16
82 العفو Al-‘Afuww The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins 4:99, 4:149, 22:60
83 الرؤوف Ar-Ra'uf The Compassionate, The All Pitying 3:30, 9:117, 57:9, 59:10
84 مالك الملك Malik-al-Mulk The Owner of All Sovereignty 3:26
85 ذو الجلال
والإكرام
Dhu-al-Jalali
wa-al-Ikram
The Lord of Majesty and Generosity 55:27, 55:78
86 المقسط Al-Muqsit The Equitable, The Requiter 7:29, 3:18
87 الجامع Al-Jami‘e The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9
88 الغني Al-Ghani The All Rich, The Independent 3:97, 39:7, 47:38, 57:24
89 المغني Al-Mughni The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28
90 المانع Al-Mani'e The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender 67:21
91 الضار Ad-Darr The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor
This attribute can only be found in hadith
6:17
92 النافع An-Nafi‘e The Propitious, The Benefactor ?
93 النور An-Nur The Light 24:35
94 الهادي Al-Hadi The Guide 25:31
95 البديع Al-Badi The Incomparable, The Originator 2:117, 6:101
96 الباقي Al-Baqi The Ever Enduring and Immutable ??
97 الوارث Al-Warith The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23
98 الرشيد Ar-Rashid The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower 2:256
99 الصبور As-Sabur The Patient, The Timeless. ?

100th name

Sufism

In Sufism, the idea of the 100th name is most prominent. It has become the elusive object of mystic devotion, the symbol of God's transcendent being. Sufis often describe their discipline as the quest to know the one-hundredth name of God and thus to merge their consciousness with the divine reality.

Mahdi

Other such hadiths, which vary according to different Shi'a sects of Islam, suggest that the 100th Name will be revealed by the Mahdi.

Bábi and Bahá'í

The Bahá'í Faith claims that the Báb fulfills the prophecy of the Mahdi, and the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (an Arabic word بهاء meaning "glory, splendor" etc.), and is the root word for Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it. While the Bahá'í Faith has roots in Islam and the monotheistic traditions, it is considered to be an independent religion, and its followers are not considered Muslims.

Personal Names

According to Islamic tradition, a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in the exact same form. For example, nobody may be named al-Malik (The King), but may be named Malik (King).

However the names/attributes of God can be combined with the word "‘Abd -" which means servant (of God) and are commonly used as personal names among Muslims. For example ‘Abd ar-Rahman ("servant of the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent").

Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99.Examples include

See also

Notes

External links

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